Monday, December 18, 2017

Ducal Silver Crescent

Malcolm complained that this one was full of tongue-twisters, but I'm really sorry-not sorry  :-)   Although honestly, I should have remembered I did this to the herald and offered to read it myself.

Forasmuch the royal highness of our splendid progenitors Akbar and Khadijah, in their abundant munificence, caused the Order of the Silver Crescent to be created and constituted into law; and forasmuch as the said Order has put rightful petition before Us to add Brennan MacFergus to their number; and forasmuch as We have, from our own certain knowledge, discerned much good, great and substantial benefit to the Realm from the deeds and labors of the said Brennan; Therefore, We, Ivan and Matilde, Tsar and Tsaritsa, with our especial grace and favor, do now give, grant and confirm unto our servant Brennan the status, repute and renown of a member of the aforenamed Order, with all rights, privileges, freedoms, liberties, emoluments, royalties and commodities appertaining thereunto.  That this our gift may remain unshaken by any sinister persecution, we have caused this charter to be written and validated by the protection of our signatures.

And now updated to add an image of the scroll itself, with the initial cadell by Mistress Elizabeth Elenore Lovell and the calligraphy by the newly-minted Mistress Tola knytr!

Two Writs for the Peerage

Writs are fun to write because they are so close to the original period texts, requiring fewer modifications than most.   There are lots of letters summoning persons to appear before Crowns.

They are also easy to write up on short notice.  :-)

Here are two Writs that went out on Saturday, both for very dear people.  I pulled them on very short notice from the same set of source texts -- letters by Margaret of Anjou -- so they do sound essentially similar.   But, there is not a lot of variation in Writ language anyway.

Ivan the King and Matilde the Queen, to Raziya bint Rusa, King’s Champion of the Arts and Sciences, greeting.  Whereas we have ordained our parliament to be held in the Crown Province of Ostgardr upon the Feast of Saint Scholastica, being 10 February, for the discussing, ordaining and making of new Champions of the Arts, we hereby command and direct that you, who are held to do homage to us, appear there in that same place personally to answer the question of whether you will accept elevation to the Order of the Laurel.  Given at Buckland Cross on the first day after the ides of December in the fifty-second year of the Society.


Ivan the King and Matilde the Queen to Mistress Rhiannon the Curious, greeting.  We command that, giving up all other business, you attend by every means you can at our colloquium which shall be held in the Crown Province of Ostgardr upon the Feast of Saint Scholastica, being 10 February,  for discussing with us and with other magnates of our realm who shall then be present, assembled in the same place, concerning certain arduous business touching us and our kingdom, to wit: whether you will accept elevation to the Order of Defence.  So ordered and commanded upon 16 December, in the fifty-second year of the Society.

Sunday, December 10, 2017

Margreþe la Fauvelle's Laurel Scroll

Sometimes I think scribes hate me.  :-)

No, not really.  I kid.[1]

Sometimes, the calligraphy and illumination end of the collaboration has ideas that make my life challenging.   When writing a legal charter-style text, there are certain letters that are easy to start with -- B, F, W, I, and S are usually quite adaptable.

Then there's that moment when the scribe says, "The text can be no more than 150 words and it needs to start with a C."

Okay, then.  :-)

Casting about for ideas, I remembered that Saint Cecilia is the patron saint of musicians, and decided to deviate a little from a standard charter text.  It's more SCAdian than period, but not so excruciatingly so that it bugs me.  I like how it came out and the actual finished scroll is truly gorgeous. 

Cecilia, beloved and holy lady of music, we pray you look with favor upon your disciple Margreþe la Fauvelle.  Lend her sweetness of voice and sureness of beat; make her fingers nimble and her ear keen; keep her instruments in tune and bless the choirs she leads.  

And then, upon 9 December in the fifty-second year of the Society, the Tsar and Tsaritsa, Ivan and Matilde, having heard the praises of the said Margreþe sung unto Saint Cecilia by the most noble of their many servants, did invest the said Margreþe with the Order of the Laurel, to have and hold the same freely and fully hereafter, along with the following arms by Letters Patents: Per saltire vert and Or, a sun in splendor counterchanged.  And so declaring, instructing and commanding, the Tsar and Tsaritsa set below their ensigns manual in perpetual memorial.

[1]  In seriousness, working with Mistress Arianna of Wynthrope was a delight.  She was just not as prepared for me doing my crazy thing with words in the way, say Eva or Thyra or Nataliia or Eleanor are.

Guest Post: Harlequin Scroll by Mari Clock van Horne

As more and more people in the East are trying out the work of doing period charter-style texts, I want to promote and encourage their work.  So, from time to time, I'm going to have guest posts show casing certain wordsmiths and texts that catch my fancy.   If you or one of your students have a piece you'd like me to look over and showcase, please contact me at

Today's guest post from Mari Clock van Horne ( +Marietta Messina ).   Her text was written for a Baronial award scroll for the Barony of Bhakail.  She worked from the Gelnhausen Charter, one of my favorite texts for adapting to the SCA. 

Talking about her work, Mari says:  "I liked how it sort of sounded like he was in trouble, but clearly he wasn't. One of the parts of this text I liked most was how it put in the in the presence of but then went on to name nobles that were in attendance. Of course I changed that to be only Majesties and

Here is the text, which was read in Court yesterday.

Memory is short and does not suffice for a crowd of things; therefore, the authority of those who preceded our age has decreed that those things were to be written down which the progress of fleeting time generally removes from the knowledge of men.

Wherefore let the generality of the present as well as the future subjects of our Barony know, that John Marshall atte Forde shall incur the sentence of our will. As he did not desist from frequent kitchening and was often caught preparing magnificent feasts, We call him before our presence, to answer for the repeated allegations; and We, by unanimous decree after consultation with the Order of the Harlequin declare him named thus and adjudge this to be our Will.

We, Rowen and Suba, Baron and Baroness of Bhakail,  hereby confirm that the above-written was done and caused to be done on the ninth day of December on the occasion of this Yule Revel in Renaissance Germany in the presence of Our Royal Majesties and Our Royal Highnesses, and wishing this judgment to remain valid unto all in posterity, we forbid that anyone, with rash daring, infringe it or in any way attempt to violate it; and we validly corroborate this our decree by the present document, signed by Our hands, with witnesses present at this deed.

Mari is also one of those talented people who can calligraph her own words, which always makes things easier.   

Lillia's Silver Rapier

Mistress Fiona, whom I've known for more than 20 years, e-mailed me and told me she had been assigned a Silver Rapier scroll, and did I know this Lillia de Vaux person.    :-)

Despite her French persona, Lillia is extraordinarily knowledgeable in Middle English, and likely doesn't need the footnotes to know exactly what this says.  But I do love footnotes.  All scrolls should have footnotes.

Bi Iuan the Kinge.  Bi Matilde the Quene.  Vheras[1] owr most souereyn auncessours Konrad et Brenwen proclamed & stablisshed the Ordyr off the Syluer Rapȝere[2] wiþ-inne the Estlondes to revard[3] godful[4] and stalworth[5] seruaunts of þe arte of deffence; and Vheras the excelent and inestimable dame Lillia de Vaux, ryȝght trustie and welbeloued, laburd dylygently thyse manye ȝeres to stodie þe swerde, & has done & caused to be done souche dedes as are worthie of renomaunce[6]; Therefor, let it be knowen to the present as well as the future that the name of þe seid Lillia shal be writen in þe rollis off the Ordyr aforseyde, there to remayne perpetually & euyrlastyngely.  And so that thys owre presente charter will be biknowen[7] withe certytude, we haue merked it with owre synes manuell vppon 9 December in þe[8] fifty-second ȝere of the Societie.

[1]  A fascinating attested spelling of "Whereas"

[2]  The ȝ character is called a "yogh."  It's found in Scots and Middle English, and is pronounced like a 'y'.

[3]  Obviously once I used Vheras, I had to use the attested "revard" spelling.

[4] godful = excellent, worthy; secondary meaning of kind, friendly.  

[5]  stalworth = brave, courageous, valiant

[6]  renomaunce = renown, fame

[7] biknowen = acknowledged, recognized, admitted

[8] The þ character is a "thorn."  It's pronounced like 'th.'

Wednesday, November 15, 2017

Researcher Word Fame: Judith bas Rabbi Mendel

Judith bas Rabbi Mendel  is another Easterner, living in fact in my own Barony, where she's currently seneschale.   I've had the great pleasure to read and judge many of her research papers and documentation projects over the years.  She has a real flair for research and the willingness to dig deeply into the optics she loves.

Judith's area of research is medieval Jewish life and culture, particularly as it relates to food.  Among other things, Judith has researched

Medieval gefilte fish
Medieval brioche
Raisin wine
Medieval matzah
Medieval challah
Medieval Passover foods

She ran a wonderful event that was a medieval Passover seder, working in all of her then-current state of the art research on the issue.   Her paper on Foods of the Medieval Passover Seder is available on line.

Unfortunately, she doesn't seem to have a blog or a website, but she does have an East Kingdom Wiki Page

Sunday, November 5, 2017

Effing MoD Text :-)

I was delighted to be asked to prepare the words for +Thomas of Effingham 's Order of Defense scroll.  In keeping with his persona, the language is English c.1460-1475.

Bi Iuan the Kinge.  Bi Mathilde the Quene.  For asmuche as oure auncestours off blessid memorie Darius et Eþeldreda ordeyned, proclamed & stablisshed the Order of Deffence with-inne the Est; and for-asmuche as it is nedefull & spedeful[1] for the gode wele of owr Reawme to make & cawse to be maden compayrs of the sayd Order; and for-asmuche as We aperceyueth[2] owr Thomas of Effingham to be a trewe dycyple off the arts of the swyrde, douwty in dedis of armes, and in all waies worshepable[3], auenaunt[4], splendidious[5], and a mervayloust[6] man of the worlde; Therfor, bie this owr present and laufull chartur, we stabull[7] & ordeyn & conferme the forsaide Thomas as a Maister of Deffence, possessing all ryghts and priuyleges as any othur Maister of the Order afor-written, and bering hens-forthward and evirlastyngly arms bi lettres patents in the forme folwyng:  Gules, a bend sinister argent surmounted by a serpent contourny in annulo vorant of its own tail Or all between six crosses crosslet argent.  In witenesse & feyth & affirmacion heroff wee haf subscribed with owr owen handes uppon this charter owr signs manuell. Done at Bergental, uppon Saynte Birstans Daie, 4 Nouembre, in the fifti- secounde ȝere of the Societie.

[1] spedeful = beneficial, profitable, advantageous; also auspicious, favorable

[2]  aperceyueth = aware of, informed of

[3] worshepable = worthy of respect, honorable, estimable

[4]  auenaunt = seemly in appearance or manners, agreeable

[5] splendidious = wonderful, worthy, magnificent

[6]  mervayloust = worthy of admiration, illustrious

[7] stabull = establish

Silver Brooch for Marieta de Charay

Ivan and Matilde, King and Queen, to the dukes, counts, viscounts, barons, justices, peers of the realm, and all others who will see the present writing, future as well as present, greetings.
Forasmuch as Art is the queen of all sciences, whose exercise communicates knowledge to all the generations of the world; and Formasmuch as our dearest servant Marieta de Charay illuminates our realm with pen and ink, embroidery, wood work and metal work; and Whereas the said Marieta’s good works should not go without notice; Therefore, We have given and gifted and confirmed by this our present charter to the said Marieta the Order of the Silver Brooch, with all its appurtenances, freely, wholly, fully, with honor.  And so that this our gift may continue firm and unimpaired in future times, we have reinforced it with the protection of our signs manual.  Dated at Bergental on 4 November in the fifty-second year of the Society.

Sunday, October 22, 2017

Word Fame: Elena Hylton

As a Laurel whose area of specialty can best be described as "research" (and language), from time to time, I'm going to start giving shout-outs to other SCA people who are doing excellent research work in their various fields.  I'm going to try to make this a montly thing, but we all know that I don't have a lot of control over my own time.

Today's word fame is for Elena Hylton  +Jeanne Clifton .  Elena has a website Elena's Threads where she talks about her fiber and clothing projects.  In addition to doing amazing clothing work, she's also an exceptional researcher and one of the few people with whom I can discuss medieval philosophy.  She's written a How-to-Research Guide that I highly recommend.

Thursday, September 21, 2017

Alys's Eight Easy Ways to Make Your Scroll Text Sound More Like A Period Document

All of the italicized examples are from texts that I've written or adapted.  Feel free to "steal" them but give me an "inspired by" credit if you do.

1.       Use only the given names of the Kings and Queens, not their full SCA names.
2.       Open with a greeting from the Crown. 
[name] and [name], King and Queen of the East, to all good people of our land, greetings.
[name], King by right of arms, and [name], his Queen, to all to whom these present letters come, greetings.
3.       Refer to the Crown’s authority to give awards, or to the Crown who created the award.
The King and Queen of the East are charged by ancient custom with recognizing those persons who perform great labors for the good of the Kingdom . . . .
Forasmuch as Our predecessors of blessed memory Viktor and Sedalia created and constituted the Order of the Sagittarius to honor and acknowledge excellence with arrow and bow . . .
4.       Use multiple (usually three) verbs and nouns that mean more or less the same thing (buy a good literary Thesaurus!)
We hereby award, invest and endow [person] with the Order of the . . . .
and all rights, privileges and advantages . . .
forasmuch as our good and honorable [person] has proven himself to be diligent, doughty, vailaunt and laudable,
and we do further command, instruct and ordain that the said [person] shall henceforward bear the emblem of the Order upon his person in sign and token of the establishing of him therein
5.       Is today a saint’s day for the recipient’s persona or culture?   Check out the Online Calendar of Saints Days (, which tells you the medieval saint’s feasts for each calendar day and the region in which that saint was honored.
For example, the entry for November 14 has (among many others) the following:
Modanus, bishop, confessor [GTZ: Scotland]
When writing a text for a Scottish persona, you would refer to November 14th as “the feast of Saint Modanus
6.       Avoid SCA-isms like “troll” or “feastocrat” or “autocrat” in favor of more general (and period!) terms like “gatekeeper” or “cook” or “steward.”
7.       Refer to the fact that the award recipient is getting rights and privileges in addition to the award, such as the right to wear the badge of the Order upon his/her person.
8.       Refer to the fact that we write things down to make sure they are remembered.
Because human memory is fallible, and knowledge of works done may be lost to time, good and notable deeds should, in a plenitude of wisdom, be committed to writing.
Lest the good and noble deeds of [person] be lost to the passage of time, we have caused these matters to be rendered in writing.
That the present award may be held firm by all our successors, we have had the present page drawn up and have fortified it with the authority of our ensigns manual upon 10 September in the fifty-first year of the Society.

More scribal Mad Libs!!

Some of my favorite scribes asked me to write short fill-in the blank texts for the East's Silver Tyger (AoA rattan combat) and Silver Brooch (AoA arts) awards.    So that they can find these in the future, I'm planting them here.

For a Silver Tyger:

Whereas the practice of the arts martial is a good, noble and worthy pursuit; and Whereas [name] excels in those arts and applies them in honorable defense of our realm; Therefore, We [king and queen], King and Queen of the East, do hereby invest and endow the said [given name] with the Order of the Silver Tyger, to have and hold in perpetuity.  Done upon [date] at [place of event].

You can replace "Whereas" with "Forasmuch as" if you like F as a initial capital better than W

If the person doesn't have an AoA yet, add the following sentence before the "Done upon. . . . "

And We do further Award the said [first name] Arms in the form following: [blazon]


And We do further Award the said [first name] with such Arms in metal and color as are fit for him/her to bear, and charge him/her to consult with our heralds forthwith.

For a Silver Brooch:

Noble men of wise countenance have written that, while the body
perishes, a work of art lives forever.[1]  Likewise, while memories
may wither and fade, the written word endures.  Therefore, to honor
the fine, excellent and eternal works of art created by [name],  We, [king and queen], King and Queen of the East, by these present and ever-certain letters, do hereby invest and endow the said [first name] with the Order of the Silver Brooch.  Done upon [date] at [place].

If the person doesn't have an AoA yet, add the following sentence before the "Done upon. . . . "

And We do further Award the said [first name] Arms in the form following: [blazon]


And We do further Award the said [first name] with such Arms in metal and color as are fit for him/her to bear, and charge him/her to consult with our heralds forthwith.

[1]  "A beautiful body perishes, but a work of art dies not." - Leonardo da Vinci

Monday, September 4, 2017

Thomas delbroc's MoD Text

I've had the pleasure of knowing Thomas delbroc ( +Steve B.  ) for nearly 25 years.  So, I was delighted to be able to work on the scroll text for the Order of Defense.  Thomas's persona is English circa 1500, so the words are from that era, in appropriate spelling.

Ioannes, Kynge of þe Est-londes[1], and Ro Honig, his Quene, to alle to whom þese presents shal come, Greeting.  Be it knowen þat we haue giuen and granted, and by þese presents do giue and grant for vs and our heirss to our welbeloued Thomas delbroc þe stasion, estate and renowne of a Maister of Defence, with all freedams, prevelages, acquietaunces[2], protexions[3], concessyons[4], lyberties and allowaunces as any oþer Maisters of Defence haue resonfully[5] vsed or enioyed; And We do furþer giue and grant to þe sayd Thomas þe ryȝt to beare armes by lettres patents in þe forme folwyng: Sable, a cuppe golde and a base ermine.  And the sayd Thomas shal likewise haue licence to displaie, beare vppon his persone and set vp banners and standarts with þe representacion and signacle of þe Ordre of Defence, to witt: þre swords in pall weþir-turned[6] tippes iwarled[7].  In witnesse whereoff we haue caused to be made þese our lettres patents. Doune at Pennsic Warre in þe fiftie-secound yere of þe Societie.

[1]  There is no good way of saying "Kingdom of the East" in Middle English.  Est-londes is "lands of/to the East," which seemed to me the best approximation.

[2] acquietaunce = a letter of indulgence

[3]  protexions = protections, referring either to the protection or maintenance which a lord or a patron provides a servant or retainer, or to safe-conduct

[4]  concessyon = granting (of land)

[5] resonfully = rightly or rightfully

[6]  weþir-turned = inverted

[7]  iwarled = interlaced

Monday, July 3, 2017

Remy's MoD Text

For Remy (+Justin Aucoin), we clearly needed something excruciatingly French.  So, with translation services provided by Brunissende Dragonette ( +Mathilde Poussin ), who knows a few things about French, we got a pretty nice early 17th century French charter.


Ioannes, by right of arms King of the East, and Ro Honig our Queen, to all to whom these present letters shall come, greetings.  Our extreme affection towards our subjects causeth in us a continual desire to acknowledge and recognize those who hath proven themselves to be worthy in deed, act and countenance.  Thus, by the advice of our Council, and upon the testimony of Peers given, and by our full power and royal Authority, We have enacted and decreed and do enact and decree as follows:  Remy Delemontagne de Gascogne shall be and hereby is elevated to and installed in the Order of Defense, with all rights, privileges, franchises, endowments and emoluments appertaining thereunto, as much as any other member of the Order aforenamed possesses.  And we further give, grant and by the present charter confirm unto the said Remy with Arms by Letters Patent in the form following: Argent, a chevron between three fleurs-de-lys and on a chief azure a wolf passant argent.  We further will and command all our beloved and trusty persons that keep our Court, and all Heralds, Bailiffs, and Justices, that they cause this our present edict to be read, published and registered in all the places and quarters in their authorities and jurisdictions, and the same mutually to keep, hold and observe inviolably hereafter.  Given at Glenn Linn upon 1 July in the year of the Society fifty-two.

Words by Alys Mackyntoich based on Lettres patentes de declaration du Roy, pour la reformation du luxe des habits & reglement d'iceux. Publiées à Roüen en Parlement, le 30 de May, 1634


De Ioannes, roi de l’Est par le droit des armes  et de Ro Honig notre Reine, à tous ceux qui recevrons ces présentes Lettres, salutations. Notre extrême affection envers nos sujets suscite en nous un désir continuel de reconnaître et de distinguer ceux qui ont prouvé être méritoires de par leurs faits, actions, et contenance. C’est pourquoi, suivant l’avis de notre Conseil et écoutant le témoignage des pairs ; et de par le plein pouvoir de notre autorité royale, nous avons décidé et décrété et faisons appliquer la proclamation suivante: Remy Delemontagne de Gascogne sera et par les présentes est élevé au rang et intronisé  dans l’ordre de défense, avec tous les droits, privilèges, franchises, dotations et émoluments qui lui sont attachés, et que tout autre membre de l’ordre susmentionné possède. Et de plus, par la présente Charte,  nous accordons, octroyons et confirmons au susdit Remy le droit de porter par lettres patentes les  armes suivantes : d’argent, à un chevron entre trois fleurs de Lys et sur un chef d’azur un loup passant d’argent. De plus, nous ordonnons à tous nos fidèles sujets qui soutiennent notre Cour et tous les hérauts, les huissiers et les juges, qu’ils fassent en sorte que notre  présent édit soit lu, publié et enregistré en toutes juridictions sous leurs autorités et que dorénavant de même ils gardent, maintiennent  et défendent ces droits. Fait à Glenn Linn en ce 1 juillet de la cinquante-deuxième année de notre société cinquante-deux.

Sunday, July 2, 2017

Scrooby, Scrooby Doo, . . . Where are you

Yes, his name is Scrooby.  Yes, we can document Scrooby Doo as a 16th cen. English name.

This scroll was deliberately written to include as many Scooby Doo references as we could reasonably pack in.

When the specters of war threaten the East, there is no need to ask where our good Scrooby of Carolingia will be found: he will be upon the field with sword and cannon, hounding and meddling with our foes to their great sorrow.  But he is no mere scrappy brawler, for Scrooby has diligently pursued the mysteries of the rapier to worthy ends.  His name is sung throughout the land as a very dog of war.  Therefore, that his qualities be known,We, Ioannes and Honig, King and Queen of the East, hereby induct our good Scrooby into the Order of the Silver Rapier, and endow him with all rights and privileges appertaining thereunto.  Done upon 1 July, at Glenn Linn, in the fifty-second year of the Society.

Ogedei's OTC scroll

I have no idea if Mongols had anything like written charters and the scribe and I did not get enough time between the assignment and the award day to do that research.  So this is in good old modern English:

Ioannes, king of the Easterners by the right of arms, and Ro Honig, queen by agency of the same right, unto all who will see this charter, greetings and witness of truth to this writing.  Forasmuch as our nobility and royal mercy demand that, for the tranquility and good governance of our Realm, We give benign and favorable assent to the just requests of our people; and forasmuch as Our prowous[1] and perfect warriors, the Order of the Tygers Combattant, have entreated Us to add to their numbers in expectation of coming War; and forasmuch as and We find the said Order’s petition to be behoveful[2] and commendable, we do hereby give, grant and by the present charter confirm unto Ogedei Becinjab, the dignity and worthihood of a member of the said Order, to be possessed perpetually without counter-claim.  That this our gift may remain unshaken by any sinister persecution, we have had this our charter written on it and validated by the protection of our signs manual.

[1]  prowous = worthy and mighty

[2]  behoveful = appropriate, proper

Thursday, June 29, 2017

Basic Concepts in Gaelic Naming

Gaelic naming incorporates concepts unfamiliar to most American English speakers -- that's why many find Gaelic naming so confusing.  This post is part of my larger set of class notes on Gaelic naming practices.  Its purpose is to familiarize people with language concepts not found in English, but which need to be understood to construct a Gaelic name correctly.

This post is not intended to explain all of the various forms of name construction in Gaelic.  An excellent article already exists that explains the most common constructions:  "Quick and Easy Gaelic Names" by Sharon Krossa (SCA: Effric Neyn Ken3ocht Mcherrald).

Nominative and Genitive Forms:  Gaelic is one of the languages in which the spelling of a name changes depending on how it is used in a sentence or in a name.  The difference between nominative and genitive forms isn't just a spelling variant.  It changes the role and meaning of the name.

The nominative form is the base form of the name.  It is the only form that can be used as a given name in SCA naming.  In a sentence such as "Hextilda built a castle," Hextilda is the nominative form of the given name.

The genitive form is the possessive form of the name.  In English, the genitive is formed by adding 's to a person's name:  John's or Alice's.

Why does the genitive form matter for Gaelic naming?  Because mac does not actually mean “son of” – it merely means “son.”  To make a byname that means “son of [father’s name],” the father’s name must be in the possessive or genitive case.   For example, a byname meaning "the son of Donn" is mac Duinn, using the genitive form of Donn.

The genitive form is required whenever another person's name -- whether clan ancestor, father or mother -- is part of your byname.

Lenition:  As explained by Effric Neyn Ken3ocht Mcherrald in her invaluable "Quick and Easy Gaelic Names" article, "[g]rammatical lenition involves a "softening" of the initial consonant sounds of words in certain grammatical situations. This pronunciation change in Gaelic is sometimes indicated by a changed spelling as well.”

Lenition is an issue primarily in female names, but sometimes in Clan bynames as well.  Usually, lenition requires adding an “h” after the initial consonant.  For example, in the byname inghean Bhriain, Bhriain is the lenited genitive form of Brian.  In the byname Caitilín MhórMhór is the lenited form of the descriptive adjective byname Mór.

For more guidance on when and how to lenite a name, refer to Effric’s “Quick and Easy Gaelic Names” and also to her article on “The Spelling of Lenited Consonants in Gaelic.”

Lenition is where many SCA heralds and submitters trip up in spelling a name submission.  Interestingly, as more and more data become available, we are finding that the Irish did not get lenition right or consistent all the time either.

Gender Matters:  The gender of the given name matters when constructing a Gaelic name because relationship bynames are literal.  Women cannot use the marker mac, which literally means “son.”  Nor can they use the marker Ó in a Clan surname.   Instead, women have gendered markers for their bynames.

          Male = mac "son"                  
          Female = ingen (pre-1200) / inghean (post-1200) "daughter"

          Male =  Ua (pre-1200) / Ó (post-1200) "member of the clan of"
          Female = ingen Uí  (pre-1200) / inghean   (post-1200)  "member of the clan of"

There is at least one sort of Gaelic byname available to women but not to men.  The marker ben (pre-1200) or bean (post-1200) + the genitive form of the husband's name means "wife of [husband's name]."  We don't have any evidence of a man being identified as the husband of a woman.

Pre-1200 vs. Post-1200 Spellings:  For complicated reasons, Gaelic spelling conventions changed substantially around approximately 1200 C.E.  For SCA purposes, Gaelic prior to 1200 C.E. and Gaelic after 1200 C.E. are considered two different languages.

When creating a Gaelic name, for good re-creation, you should try to make sure that all elements of the name are in the same form of Gaelic.  However, pre-1200 and post-1200 spellings generally can be combined as long as there are less than 500 years between the name elements.

What a submitter cannot do is combine pre-1200 and post-1200 spellings in the same name phrase.  A "name phrase" in Gaelic consists of a marker such as mac or Ó and a person's name (father or clan ancestor).  The following are examples of Gaelic name phrases:

           mac Briain = son of Brian
           inghean Ardáin = daughter of Ardán

           BUT NOT inghean Áeda  = pre-1200 marker with post-1200 father's name

If there is any doubt as to whether the spelling is pre-1200 or post-1200, be sure to advise the submitter to consent to ALL changes.   Many times, a Gaelic name is returned because we are not permitted to make the simple change from the incorrect inghean Áeda to the correct ingen Áeda.

To Gaelic or Not to Gaelic

In the immortal words of Seosamh an Crúca Ó Máille, "Friends don't let friends pick Gaelic names."

All kidding aside, there is a lot of confusion both about Gaelic and about the several other languages spoken in medieval Ireland and Scotland.  This confusion is compounded by fantasy novels and "Celtic" websites, most of which are written by people who aren't specialists in naming.

This post is part of my larger class notes on Irish and Scottish naming.  It is intended to help a person looking for a name (or a consulting herald working with that person) choose the right kind of name for the right place and time.

Did your persona speak Gaelic?  Not everyone in Ireland or Scotland did.

  • Gaelic was the majority language only in Ireland; in Scotland it was spoken by a minority.
  • Gaelic was not the only language spoken in Ireland.  After the first Norman invasion in the late 12th century, you also find Anglo-Norman names entering the naming pool.  Also, when the Norman and later English invaders starting trying to write down Gaelic, a distinct language called “Anglicized Irish” came into being.
  • In Scotland, very few people spoke Gaelic and we have very few written records in Gaelic.  A Scottish person is more likely to speak Scots and/or English.  Scots is a language distinct from, but related to English.  During period it was spoken in the lowlands of Scotland and major Scottish cities.  Official records began being kept in Scots rather than Latin after about 1400.
  • Some Scots also spoke forms of Norse, particularly in the Orkney and Shetland Islands. 

If you’re Irish, are you native or from an Anglo-Norman family that has been living in Ireland since the invasion?

  • Irish names like Fitzgerald or Butler aren’t Gaelic.  Those are Anglo-Norman family names borne by invaders who settled and stayed.
  • The Anglo-Norman families in Ireland had a distinct culture that wasn't Gaelic but also wasn't English.  
  • Irish Anglo-Normans used given names that looked more or less like English given names.  Anglo-Norman families did not use Gaelic given names.
  • However, some Anglo-Norman names, such as William (Uilliam) and Alice (Ailis), were adapted into Gaelic.  

How do you decide between Ireland and Scotland?

  • If you want a name that starts with O’ like O’Toole, you can only be Irish.  That construction did not exist in Scotland.
  • By the way, O'Toole is the Anglicized Irish form; the Gaelic (male) form was Ua Tuathail (pre-1200) or Ó Tuathail (post-1200).[1]
  • Because we have very few good Gaelic records in Scotland, for SCA purposes we generally assume that Gaelic given names that existed in Ireland were also used in Scotland.

How do you decide between Gaelic and Anglicized Irish?  Does it matter for your persona?

  • Even if your persona was an Irish Gael, there’s a good chance that your name was recorded (effectively phonetically) in Anglicized Irish after about the 14th century.
  • Anglicized Irish is vastly easier for modern English-speaking eyes and ears to understand.  For example, consider two forms of the same name: 

                       Connor mac Machan O Devany = Anglicized Irish

                       Conchobhar mac Mathghamhna  Dhubhánaigh = Gaelic

  • If you want your name to be pronounced correctly by someone who hasn't studied Gaelic, you want your name in Anglicized Irish.
  • However, if you want a persona who lived prior to the 12th century invasions, your only option is Gaelic.

What about Scotland, then?

  • In Scotland, it is far more likely that your name will be in Scots than Gaelic.
  • While we don't have a lot of evidence in Gaelic for Scotland, we do have renderings of Gaelic names in both Scots and Latin (just not very many of them).
  • Just because a Scottish name starts with Mac- doesn't mean that it is in Gaelic.  It could be either: (1) a Scots rendering of a Gaelic patronymic or (2) a formerly Gaelic patronymic that has now become an inherited surname.  Mac- style surnames became inherited surnames (rather than literal patronymics) as Gaelic speakers settled in cities and the Scots-speaking lowlands.
  • For example, my surname Mackyntoich is based on the Gaelic mac an toisich or "son of the chieftan."  However,  I'm not anyone's son.  Instead, Alys Mackyntoich is likely the daughter of a family that is descended from a son of a chieftan.  As her family moved into one of the bigger cities, like Inverness, the byname ceased to be literal and became an inherited surname.

What about the women?

  • In Gaelic, patronymics are literal.  In other words, Niall mac Briain is literally the son of Brian.  A woman can't be someone's son.  For "daughter," Gaelic uses the marker ingen (pre-1200) or inghean (post-1200).  Thus, Niall's sister Sorcha can't be mac Briain, she has to be inghean Bhriain.[2]
  • Likewise, a Gaelic man can use a Clan byname marked with  Ó (that's an acute accent, not an apostrophe).  A woman cannot.  Because of the wonderfully weird rules of Gaelic grammar and name construction, a man can be Donnchadh Ó Conchobhair, but a woman from the same Clan has to be Dearbhorgaill inghean Uí Chonchobhair.  
    (This is post-1200 construction.  In pre-1200 construction, the man's marker is Ua and the women's marker is ingen Uí.  Because Gaelic).
  • In the SCA, we often have women who want to have Mac- or O- style bynames.  This is possible BUT NOT IN GAELIC.   The woman has to use a Scots (Mackyntoich) or Anglicized Irish (O Brady) byname instead.
  • Yes, the SCA's rules permit you to combine Gaelic elements and Scots or Anglicized Irish elements together in certain ways.  But Gaelic-Scots or Gaelic-Anglicized combos are inelegant and poor re-creation.  That being said, it's your name not mine, and if Fionnghuala O Cassidy feels right to you, have at.  

    (FYI, the wholly Anglicized Irish form would be Finola O Cassidy; the wholly Gaelic form would be Fionnghuala inghean Uí Chaiside)

"But I found it on the Internet!"

  • The Internet is the Land Of Bad Gaelic[tm].  Here are a few helpful research hints.
  • If the spelling is the one your grandparent used when s/he came over from the Old Country, it's almost definitely Anglicized Irish, not Gaelic.
  • Names of Gaelic saints may be registerable; names of figures from Irish legend, like Cu Chulainn or Émer are not.
  • Baby naming websites, "clan history" websites and Behind the Name are generally not reliable.
  • Amateur-prepared genealogies are not necessarily reliable, but they may help an experienced herald to find a reliable source with the same information.

[1]  For reasons we are not getting into right now, Gaelic spelling had a major shift around 1200 C.E.  As a result, pre-1200 and post-1200 Gaelic words are spelled quite differently.  This matters for SCA naming.  

[2]  That extra h is because of a concept in Gaelic grammar called "lenition."  But that's a story for another time.

Sunday, June 11, 2017

Scots Text for a Tyger's Cub

+Leonete D'Angely   asked me to do a Scots text for Erin inghean Chonchobhair, who was to receive a Tyger's Cub, the East's children's award.   Well, Scots didn't really have a word for "cub" so it became the Order of the Tyger's Whelp (Ordoure of the Tigirs Quhelp) instead.   I hope Erin liked it -- I missed it going out amid all the other things going on today.

Ioannes & Ro Honig, Kyng & Qwene of the Est, sende greatings to all who will sey thaise oure present letteris.  The memorie of men is fleiting but the wryttin word lyves; thws, to cutt off anie mesure of ambiguitie, dedis shuldbe prooved by the wytnes of letterys.  Lett the present age as well as all generatiounis to cume kenyt that Erin inghean Chonchobhair hasse servit the Realme faithably & leyly, sustayning the deffens of the bordwrys witht bow & arrowes.  In commendatioun thairoff, We do now indew & indote the seid Erin witht the Ordoure of the Tigirs Quhelp, to hald & possess the same perpetualie, witht all rychtis, indewments, frawnchyses & priveleges appertinent thairvnto.  In oure wisedom, We haif ordainit this document to be wryttin as testimoniall euidence & cawshion, strenthned by the force of oure signatouris, & declamyt alowd in oure Court in Carillion upoun 10 Joune in the fiftie-secund yere of the Societie.

Matteo's Silver Rapier Text

Ioannes the King and Ro Honig the Queen, to all and sundry our subjects to whose knowledge these our letters shall come, greeting. Forasmuch as we will and wish the wealth, profit and quietness of the realm to continue with us and our posterity, nothing earthly is more joyous and happy to us than to see men expending their strength in defense of our realm.  Our good and worthy liegeman Matteo Cole Amici has labored these ten years under harsh and despitous tutelage in the study of swordsmanship, and has faced grimful foes upon the battlefield in our name.  As these deeds are pleasing in our sight, we do hereby invest and endow the said Matteo with the Order of the Silver Rapier to have and to hold fully, freely and peaceably.  That this our charter may take more solemn effect, and that none pretend ignorance thereof, we have caused our words to be committed to paper and be published at all places needful. Subscribed with our hand, upon 10 June in the fifty-second year of the Society.

Lorenzo's OGR Text

Lorenzo's persona is that of an Italian man living in England in the 1590s.  So, with one of my favorite co-conspirators, we created a scroll appropriate for the era.  On my end, that meant spelling appropriate for 1590s English legal documents.

Ioannes and Ro Honig, soverein lord and ladye of the East, with advyce and consent of the estates of parliament presentely convened, considering the princelie dewty which binds us in exampell of our most noble progenitours to imparte to our most loving subiects such honours and dignityes as their meritts and virtuous actes in great servyces and the common good iustly require, to the end that throu their exampell the nobell hearts of our people may be nourished and made whole; and considering the excellense of our subiect Lorenzo Gorla, which has been made knowen to vs by testimonye of persons of good repute; and vnderstanding the continual perseueranse of the said Lorenzos earnestnesse and zeal in the matters of the rapiere; therfoure, we now decree and declare that the sayd Lorenzo be invested with the Ordere of the Golden Rapiere, with all rights, freedoms and priuileges appertayning theretoe, as freely and in the same manner as anye other membre of the Ordere aforenamed.  So done and caused to be done vpon 10 Iune in the fifty-secound year of the Society.

Monday, May 29, 2017

Sagittarius Text for Kobayashi

I've known Master Kobayashi Yutaka for far longer than either of us would care to recall.  I was pleased and honored to do the text for one of the few awards he doesn't already have -- the Sagittarius, the East's Grant-level archery award.  I didn't use a source text for inspiration on this one, I just made it up out of my own head based on over a decade of reading medieval charters and legal documents.   Can you tell?

Ioannes Imperator et Augustus.  Ro Honig Imperatrix.  Forasmuch as Our predecessors of blessed memory Viktor and Sedalia created and constituted the Order of the Sagittarius to honor and acknowledge excellence with arrow and bow, and forasmuch as We, through the office by which We possess the imperial dignity, are bound by honor and by the force of tradition, the which force men ignore at their peril, to recognize, elevate and acknowledge those of the East proven by reliable report to be excellent in such matters, and after mature deliberation, from the fullness of our imperial power,  We hereby decree ordain the following: that the name of Kobayashi Yutaka is and shall be hereafter entered upon the lists of the Order of the Sagittarius according to the present imperial and ever-valid edict.  This we have done and caused to be done upon May 27, in our solemn court in session with princes, counts, barons, magnates, nobles and citizens, in the year of the Society fifty-two.

Sunday, May 28, 2017

Aildreda's Pelican Scroll

Aildreda de Tamwurthe's persona is mid-13th century English.  That presented a slight challenge, as all of the legal documents of mid-13th century England that I've found so far are in Latin.   I still haven't mastered Latin well enough to write in it.  I can translate out of it, laboriously, with a dictionary in hand, but I can't compose in it.

I started with a Latin legal text from the 1260s, used multiple translations to confirm my own sense of what it said, and then put the modern English into pre-1300 Middle English.  The end result still reads a little more modern than I'd like, but I didn't want to hold up the scroll-making process while I fiddled to a standard of perfection that I probably couldn't meet.

The text contains deliberate internal spelling inconsistencies, mirroring the variability in spelling found in period documents.  For example, I used every spelling of "and" found in Middle English prior to 1300, just as a present for Dreda.

The ȝ character is a yogh.  It's pronounced like a modern 'y'.   ð and þ are both pronounced like 'th'.

All of the footnoted definitions of terms are based on the definitions in the Middle English Dictionary.

Ioannes, by rihte of armes Kinge of Estlonde, & Ro Honig, by þe samen rihte þe Quene, ȝif gretunge to alle whamm þe present leattre schal rahte.  For þe onour & þe auantage off oure selues ond off oure reaume, We, by þe consil of oure magnates, scilicet[1] þe worþssipuol Ordre off þe Pellican, herbi & heonne-forthþeward astoll[2], staþel[3] & bifeste[4] Aildreda de Tamwurthe as maistresse of þe ordre afoure-named.  Ant we do herbi conferme & ifaste[5] þe leattres patents biforen-ȝifenn[6] onto þe fornseid Aildreda, wið alle þe rihts, freodoms, freoscipes[7], remissiuns[8] & largesce[9] as schal belongeþ to a Peer off þis reaume.  Ant we ferþer comaunde þat þe sygnacle[10] & bagge[11] of þe Pellican be beren her-æfter uppe on þe fornseid Aildredas persone euere-more, þe hwich commandement schal be obeied on peine of such deseritisun[12] & remevement[13] off benefices as we demað soðfeste[14] & fair.  Ant þis ure leattre preouyng þe samen we sened wiþ vre seel uppe-on þis twenty- seueþe dai of Mæi, in þe fifti- secunde ȝer.

[1]  scilicet = that is, namely

[2]  astoll =  to set up, establish, institute

[3]  staþel = to establish

[4]  bifeste = to endow with, give

[5]  ifaste = to confirm, as an agreement

[6]  biforen-ȝifenn = previously given

[7]  freoscipes = rights or privileges; also freedom from servitude or obligation

[8]  remissiuns = immunities, freedoms

[9]  largesce  = freedom, liberality

[10] sygnacle = a seal, sign of genuineness, hallmark

[11]  bagge = yep, that's how you spell badge in the 13th century

[12]  deseritisun = deprivation or loss of possessions or privileges

[13] remevement = bet you've never been threatened by your own scroll before

[14]  soðfeste = primary meaning is "real, actual; genuine, authentic;"  it is used in here in its secondary meaning of proper, just and righteous

Names from 11th Century Carcassonne

Mistress Alys Mackyntoich
May 2017

The data in this article were extracted from Latin-language charters and letters published on Epistolæ (, a website maintained by Columbia University collecting writings to and from women in the Middle Ages. The letters are transcribed in the original Latin with translations into modern English by Professor Joan Ferrante of Columbia University.
Carcassonne is located in the south of France.  Although the charters from which the names were extracted were written in Latin, the local vernacular language was Occitan or Langue d’Oc.  When creating an SCA name, the elements in this article would be considered part of the French language group under Appendix C of SENA.

I.         Naming Patterns
A.  For Men
The data show a wide variety of naming patterns for men, with multiple forms of patronymic bynames and locative bynames.  These most common patterns are:
[given name] + de + [place name]
[given name] + [adjective form of a place name, using the suffix –ensis]
[given name] + filius + [father’s name in the genitive case]
[given name] + [father’s name in the genitive case]
[given name] + [father’s name in the genitive case] + de + [place name]
[given name] + [surname]
Many men, particularly those in religious offices, are known solely by their title, such as Petrus presbyter and Frotardo abbati.
There is one example of the adjectival form of the place name coming before the given name: Narbonensis Guilfredi
There is one example in the data of [given name] + cognomento + [name].
The data contains one instance of what may be a matronymic byname in the form [given name] + filia + [mother’s name in the genitive form]. 
By far the most interesting pattern found in the data is the existence of what appear to be double given names.  Multiple men are identified two names that are clearly given names by context.  The transcriptions join these compound names with a hyphen, but the hyphen may not exist in the original documents.  It is unclear whether these are true double given names or some form of unmarked patronym.  For the purposes of this article, I have treated each element of a double given name as an instance of the individual name – for example, Petrus-Raymundi is recorded as an instance of Petrus and an instance of Raymundi.
B.  For Women
This data set contains a fairly large number of female names for the time period.  Most women have no byname at all or are known by their titles, such as Rangardis comitissa. However, there are also instances of matronymic bynames in the form [given name] + filia + [mother’s name in the genitive form].

II.        Given Names
A.    How to Use the Data
Not all spellings found in the text are registerable name spellings for SCA purposes.  Latin spelling varies depending on whether the given name appears as the subject or object of the original sentence.  Only the nominative forms can be used to create given names.  Nominative forms usually end in –us.  Forms ending in –i generally are genitive forms and can be used to create patronymic surnames using the pattern [given name] + filius or filia + [genitive father’s name].
The bolded header forms are the most common nominative forms of the given names.  The forms under the heading are those actually found in the texts.  Where the nominative form is not found in any of the texts, I have extrapolated the likely nominative form based on other period examples.  The numbers in the parenthesis are the dates of documents in which the name is found.

B.  Male Given Names
      Adalberti (1066, 1067)
      Adalbertus (1070)
      Adalbert (1069)
      Aigolfi (1099)
      Alamandi (1068)
      Alexandri (1067)
      Amaldo (1069)
      Ameli (1099)
      Amelii (1099)
      Arnal (c. 1090)\
      Arnalli (1058, 1067)
      Arnallum (1067)
      Arnallus (1067)
Ato / Atto
      Ato (1069, 1099)
      Atto (1084, c. 1090)
      Azedmari (1067)
      Baro (c. 1075, 1084)
      Begoni (c. 1090)
      Beliard (1059)
      Berengarii (1058, 1066, 1067, 1068, 1070, 1071)
      Berengarius (1064)
      Bernar (c.1090)
Bernard (1067)
Bernardi (1066, 1067, 1067/68, 1070, c. 1075)
Bernardo (1066, 1069, 1071, c. 1090)
Bernardum (1099)
Bernardus (1068, 1069, 1070, 1084, 1089, 1097, 1099)
Bertranus / Bertrandus
      Bertrandi (1067)
      Bertrani (c. 1075)
      Bertranno (1066)
      Bonifilii (1070)
      Bremundo (1069)
      Durandi (1068)
      Durando (1068)
      Duranno (1068)
      Elisiarii (1066)
      Elisiarni (1066)
      Engelbert (1069)
      Enrici (1067)
      Henrici (1066)
      Ermemiri (1058)
      Escafredi (1089)
      Fredeloni (1066)
      Frotardo (1062, 1066)
Froterius / Frotarius
      Frotarii (1062)
      Froterii (1068, c.1075)
      Froterio (1069)
      Froterius (1069)
      Fulcho (1099)
      Gaucelini (1067)
      Gauzberti (1066, 1068)
      Gauzfredo (1067)
      Geraldi (1066, 1068)
      Geraldo (1067)
      Giraldo (c. 1075)
      Giraldus (1069)
      Guiraldi (1068)
      Girbert (1064)
      Girberti (1067)
      Girberto (1064)
      Girbertus (1064)
Guifredus / Gifredus / Guilfredus /
      Gifredi (1067)
      Guifredi (1068)
      Guifredus (1070)
      Guilfredi (1067)
      Guigo (1084)
      Guigonis (1084)
      Guitardi (1066)
      Ermengaudi (1067)
      Hermengaudi (1084)
      Hugone (1066)
      Hugoni (1066)
      Hugonis (1066)
      Ugo (1089)
      Ugonis (1067)
      Imberti (1068)
      Ioannes (1067)
      Ioannis (1066, 1067)
      Lodgario (1070)
      Lupi (1068)
      Martinum (1099)
      Matfredi (1068)
      Miro (1064, 1069)
      Mironem (1069)
      Mironis (1058, 1064, 1067)
      Oliverii (1067)
      Osmundus (1099)
      Otone (1070, 1071)
Petri (1067, 1067/68, 1069, 1070, 1071, 1099)
Petro (1066, 1069, 1070, c. 1090)
Petronis (c. 1075)
Petronum (1063)
Petrum (1084)
Petrus (1062, 1063, 1067/68, 1069, 1070, 1071, 1084)
Philippi (1063, 1064, 1067/68, 1070 1071)
Philippo (1062, 1066, 1067, 1069, 1084, 1089, c. 1090, 1097, 1099)
      Poncii (1067, c. 1090)
      Poncius (1067, 1069, 1084)
      Pontii (1099)
      Pontio (1066)
      Pons (1099)
      Raimbaldo (1066)
Raimundi (1066, 1067, 1070)
Raimundo (1070)
Raimundus (1064, 1067)
Raymundi (1067/68, 1071, 1084, 1089)
Raymundo (1071, c. 1090)
Raymundus (1059, 1062, 1063, 1066, 1067/68, 1069, 1084)
Remendi (1070)
Remundi (1067, 1070)
Ricalfus / Riculfus
      Ricalfi (1067)
      Riculfi (1069)
      Ricardi (1058)
      Ricardum (1058)
Rodgarius / Rotgarius
Rodgarii (1070, 1071)
Rodgario (1067/68, 1071)
Rodgarius (1067/68)
Rotgerii (1062)
Rogarius (1068)
Rogerio (1063)
Rogerium (1063)
Rogerius (1063)
      Rostagni (1066, 1084)
      Rostagno (1066)
      Rostagnus (1084)
      Scimon (1067)
      Segario (1066)
      Sigarii (1069)
      Sigerii (1068)
      Spirani (c. 1075)
      Stephani (1067, 1068, c. 1075, 1084)
      Stephanus (1067, 1069, c. 1090)
      Tridmundo (1066)
      Tritmundus (1084)
      Udalardi (1069)
      Udalgarii (1067)
      Umberto (1066)
Guillelmi (1062, 1068, 1099)
Guillermi (1067)
Guillermus (1067, 1070)
Wilelmus (1062)
Willelmi (c. 1075, 1084, c. 1090)
Willelmus (1062, 1084)
Willhermi (1089)

C.  Female Given Names
      Adala (1066)
Adalais (1062)
Adalaidis (1070)
Adalez (1067)
      Adalmodi (1067/68)
      Adalmodis (1067)
      Alamudis (1068)
      Almode (1067)
      Almodi (1071, 1071)
      Almodis (1058, 1064, 1066, 1067)
      Ameliae (1071)
      Arnsidam (1067)
      Caecilia (1097)
      Ermengardem (1068)
      Ermengardis (1062, 1067, 1067/68, 1070, 1084, 1089, 1090, 1097)
      Ermingarda (c. 1075)
      Ermingardis (1067/68)
      Hermengard (1069)
      Hermengardis (1069, 1084, 1099)
      Hermingarda (c. 1075)
      Garsindis (1062)
      Guilherma (1069)
      Guillelma (1070)
      Wilherma (1069)
      Mantilis (1067)
Raingardis (1062)
Rangard  (1059)
Rangarda (1063)
Rangardam (1059)
Rangardi (1071)
Rangardis (1067, 1070, 1071, 1090)
Rengarde (1063)
Rengardis (1059, 1063, 1067)
Trudgarda (possibly Trudgardis)
      Trudgarda (1063)

III.      Bynames
            This section includes bynames found in the data that were not patronymics.  If the form in the text was not the nominative form, I have indicated the nominative form as the header.  Where possible, the meanings of the bynames have been noted in italics.
abbatus (1062)                                    abbot
Altemir (1058, 1067)
Aquiniensis (1066)                             of Aix
Auxiensis (1066)                                of Auch
Avinionensis (1066)                           of Avignon
Batallia (1063)
Barcheonensis (1064, 1066, 1068)     of Barcelona
Biterrensis (1062, 1070)                    of Béziers
capiscolius (1066)                              choir leader
Carcassonensis (1067, 1070, 1071)   of Carcassonne
Caunensis (1062)                                of Caunes
Cluniensis (1066)                               of Cluny
cognomento Trencavels (1070)         known as Trencavels
Dalmati (1066, 1068)                         from Dalmatia (Croatia)?
de Alto-pullo (1084)                          of Altpol
de Alverno (c. 1075)
de Barbarano (1066)
de Bernizo (c.1075)
de Cantul (1069)
de Capraria (1066)                             of Cabrières
de Carcassona (1067/68, 1099)          of Carcassonne
de Caunas (1070)                                of Caunes
de Cervaria (1069)
de Cerviano (1068)                             of Servian
de Clarenciaco (c.1075)                     of Clarensac
de Claromonte (1067)
de Coquinas (1067)
de Fox (1067/68)                                of Foix
de Ispania (1064)                                of Spain
de Medenis (1066)                             of Médis
de Moisiaco (1067)                            of Moissac
de Montepessulano (1068)                 of Montpellier
de Ornadons (1070)
de Petrataliada (1068)
de Ponça[1] (1067)                                of Pons
de Poskeriis (1066)                            of Posquières
[de] Proliano (1063)
de Redez (1067, 1067/68)
de Sancta Maria (1067/68)                 of Saint Mary
de Saragoza (1064)                             of Zaragoza
de Tarraga (1069)
      de Tarrega (1058, 1069)
de Tolosa (1067/68)                           of Toulouse
de Villaflorani (1099)
de Villemagna (1067)
Gerundensis (1066)                            of Girona
Isarni (1064, 1067)
Magalonensis (1066)                          of Maguelone
Massiliensis (1066)                            of Marseille
Menerbensis (1070)                           of Minerve
monachus (1066, 1067)                      monk
Monaello (c. 1090)
Narbonensis  (1067/58, 1070)            of Narbonne
Nemausensis (1062)                           of Nimes
Picart (c. 1090)                                   Picard (from Picardy)
Picola (1067)
Pictavinus (1084)                               of Poitiers
Redensis (1070)                                  of Razès
Rutenensis (1066)                              of Rouergue

[1]  The transcription notes that the cedilla appears in the source text.