Saturday, December 20, 2014

AoA for Fiora of Darton

I'm experimenting with some more texts with notary attestations.  In this case, Their Majesties had authorized the Baron and Baroness of Bhakail to give out the AoA on their behalf, so it seemed a fitting time for the use of an attesting official.   This particular text was jotted out on fairly short notice, as a favor to the scribe.   I based it off of a charter of Adelaide, Countess of Turin and Savoy (1083, April 22).   And adding penalty language to texts is always fun -- you can find our fairly quickly who is really listening to the scroll   ;-)

On Saturday, the 13th of December, in the forty-ninth year of the Society, in the Barony of Bhakail, in the presence of the Baron and Baroness thereof and of many other good persons of the Kingdom of the East, Edward and Thyra, King and Queen of the East, did cause the following to be read, declared and proclaimed:

Let it be known that Fiora of Darton is a good, honored and noble lady whose manifold good works are deserving of reward.  Therefore, we do by these present letters award her Arms in a form meet, just and fitting for one of her worth: ________________________________  So that this our decree shall be protected as valid and inviolate we do further set as a punishment that if anyone shall presume to violate or corrupt the rights of the aforesaid Fiora as set forth herein, then they should pay to the aforesaid Fiora a penalty in the amount of one thousand good coins of silver.

Signed by the hands of Edward Rex and Thyra Regina, who requested that this award and charter be made as above.  I, Chrestienne la pescheresse, was present and wrote this document.

Friday, December 19, 2014

Writ for the Laurel

So, last weekend this Thing happened to me.  I have been given a Writ by Their Majesties of the East to appear before their Court on January 31, 2015 to answer whether I will accept the Order of the Laurel.

My quite spectacular scroll was calligraphed by Mistress Eleanor Catlyng ( +Lisa Goldthwaite) with words by Lord Martyn de Haliwell ( +TJ DeLuca) from a 16th century Scots text.   Martyn writes about his work on my text here:

Sunday, December 7, 2014

Adapting Medieval Legal Documents for SCA Award Texts

By popular demand, I am putting my class notes up into the Blog.  They are notes, so they are less detailed than the actual class, but I think they will be helpful nonetheless.

Why Legal Documents?

Legal documents are among the easiest period documents to adapt for SCA purposes, because
legal documents tend to have the same essential parts as an award text:

  • The Who: who is issuing/authoring/signing this document? To whom is the document addressed?
  • The What: what is the intended purpose of this document?
  • The Why: why is this document being written?
  • The Act: what the document does; and
  •  The Affirmation of the Act.
When dealing with an SCA award text, 
  • The Who = which Crown or Coronet is bestowing the award, and to whom?
  • The What = what award is being given;
  • The Why = why is the award being given; and
  • The Act = an SCA “scroll” serves as validation and confirmation that the award was given.

The greatest amount of work involved in adapting a period text is the research. One you find a text appropriate to the recipient’s place and time, the actual adaptation is the easy part.

Making More Medieval Language

Medieval writers loved to work in units of three.  A simple structure that will make a text sound more medieval uses the Rule of Three:

     Wherefore, [statement of the Crown’s authority]

     Wherefore, [virtues of the person being awarded]

      Therefore, [we award X to person]

Using three-word phrases will make language sound more medieval:

Instead of, “We award [person] arms”

Use: “We hereby give, endow and award [person] arms”

Example: Elizabeth I’s charter to Walter Raleigh

Knowe yee that of our especial grace, certaine science, and meere motion . . . 

. . . to haue, horde, occupie and enjoy to him, his heires and assignee for euer. . .

. . . And for asmuch as upon the finding out, discovering, or inhabiting of such remote lands, countreis, and territories as aforesaid . . .


1.  Salutations by the Crown:

By the Quene Right worshipful fader in god / our Right trusty and right welbeloued / We grete you wele. (Signet of Queen Margaret: Letter concerning a case in Chancery, 1446)

Edward, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine, to all those that these present letters shall hear or see, greeting. (Confirmation of the Charters, 1297)

Edward by the grace of God etc. to the reverend father in Christ William, by the same grace archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of all England, greeting. (The Statute of Laborers; 1351)

Charles the Fourth, by favour of the divine mercy emperor of the Romans, always august, and king of Bohemia; as a perpetual memorial of this matter. (Golden Bull of the Emperor Charles IV, 1356)

We, Rupert the elder, by the grace of God Count Palatine of the Rhine, elector of the Holy Empire and duke of Bavaria (The Foundation of the University of Heidelberg, 1386)

Louis, the divine power ordaining, august emperor. (The Ordinance of Louis the Pius, 817)

Don Ferdinand and Dona Isabella, by the grace of God king and queen of Castile, etc. (Compact between Spain and Portugal, signed by the Catholic Sovereigns at Madrid, May 7, 1495)

ELIZABETH by the Grace of God of England, Fraunce and Ireland Queene, defender of the faith, &c. (Charter to Sir Walter Raleigh, 1584)

2.  Identify The Addressees:

     A.  Public Announcements:

To all people to whome these presents shall come, greeting. (Charter to Sir Walter Raleigh, 1584)

[T]o all those that these present letters shall hear or see, greeting. (Confirmation of the Charters, 1297)

Mary, by the grace of God, queen of Scots, gives greeting to those, all and singly, to whose notice this letter comes (Charter declaring the Earl of Arran the second person in the land, March 1543)

     B.  Individual Addressee:

Bishop Adrian, servant of the servants of God, sends to his dearest son in Christ, the illustrious king of the English, greeting and apostolic benediction. (The Bull of Pope Adrian IV Empowering Henry II to Conquer Ireland. A.D. 1155)

By the kyng: Ryght trusty and right welbeloued Cosin (Letter to Richard, Duke of York, 1436)

John by the grace of God king of Scots, to his beloved and faithful Alexander de Argyll and his bailies of Lochawe, greeting (First Roll of Parliament of Scotland, 1293)

     C.  Groups of Addressees:

Henry, by the grace of God King of England and duke of Normandy, to the archbishop of Canterbury, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs and all his loyal subjects, French or English, throughout England, greetings. (Charter for the City of London, 1131)

Ralph earl of Chester to all his barons, constables, bailiffs, officers, liege-men and friends, French and English, both present and future, greetings. (Charter of the Earl of Chester to Coventry, c. 1199-1204)

Eleanor, by the grace of God, humble queen of England, duchess of Normandy and Aquitaine, and countess of Anjou, to the archbishops, bishops, counts, vicounts, barons, seneschals, provosts, justiciaries, bailiffs, all in the present and future to whom these letters will come, greetings. (Charter to Oleron, 1199)

3.  Why Is The Crown Doing What It Is Doing?

Although deeds of the Crown may remain valid from the actual act of performing such deeds, and those things which are lawfully endowed to our subjects by exercise of our will cannot be wrested away by any act of force; it is, however, the duty of our imperial authority to set such deeds, donations and endowments into writing, lest there can be any doubt of the transaction. (Charter establishing the Duchy of Austria, 1156)

Whenever our faithful subjects propose things that are in harmony with the motive of justice and pertain to the good weal of the Kingdom, not only should they not be denied with stubborn mind, but they should be granted laudably with ready heart and benevolent mind. (Letter of Matilda of Tuscany, c 1072-76)

Since human memory is short and does not suffice for a crowd of things, the authority of those who preceded our age, the divine emperors and kings, has decreed that those things were to be written down which the progress of fleeting time generally removes from the knowledge of men. (The Gelnhausen Charter; April 13, 1180)

Forasmuch as after long, great and intolerable pains and labours taken by us since our arrival within our realm, for government thereof and keeping of the lieges of the same in quietness, we have not only been vexed in our spirit, body and senses thereby, but also at length are altogether so wearied thereof that our ability and strength of body is no longer able to endure the same. (Charter appointing James, Earl of Moray regent of Scotland, 1567)

4.  What Is the Crown Doing?

Know that we have granted and confirmed in perpetuity by this our present charter to all our beloved and faithful people of Oleron and their heirs, that they may act as they will legally and securely in perpetuity in giving their girls and widows in marriage and marrying their boys, and having stewardship of their girls and widows and boys, without opposition from us and our heirs. (Charter of
Eleanor of Aquitaine to Oleron, 1199)

And therefore we decree by this law, to be forever valid, that he who is elected emperor concordantly or by the majority of the electors, shall, in consequence of the election alone, be considered and regarded by all as the true and lawful emperor; and that he ought to be obeyed by all the subjects of the empire, and that he shall have, and shall be considered and firmly asserted by all to have and
to hold, the imperial administration and jurisdiction and the plenitude of the imperial power. (Law Licit Juris of the Frankfort Diet, 1338)

[W]e have made, named, appointed, constituted and ordained, and, by these our letters, name, appoint, make, constitute and ordain our said dearest brother James, earl of Moray, regent to our said dearest son, realm and lieges aforesaid, during his minority and less age and until he be of the age of seventeen years complete . . . (Charter appointing James, Earl of Moray regent of Scotland, 1567)

5.  Threats Against Those Who Disobey (not usually included later in period, but fun to read)

Concerning this case we wish and by our authority we confirm that if any insolent or rebellious person with reckless boldness will attempt to violate or infringe this our sound command through any contrivance or presume to come against us and this venerable place and will not fully observe all that was said above, he will stand to pay one hundred pounds of gold in the name of punishment, half to our estate, half to that venerable place where the offense was committed, and moreover he will suffer the disturbance of our indignation, and punishment of most severe vengeance. (Letter of Matilda of Tuscany, c 1072-76)

Moreover, whatever persons shall presume to assert or say any thing contrary to these declarations, decrees or definitions, or any one of them or to countenance those who assert or say anything; or to obey their mandates or letters or precepts: we deprive them from now on, and decree them to be deprived by the law and by the act and itself, of all the fiefs which they hold from the empire, of all
the favours, jurisdictions, privileges and immunities granted to them by us or our predecessors. Moreover, we decree that they have committed the crime of high treason and are subject to all the penalties inflicted on those committing the crime of high treason. (Law Licit Juris of the Frankfort Diet, 1338)

6.  Conclusions

In testimony of this we have arranged for our great seal to be appended to the present document, signed by our said dearest kinsman and guardian, with the consent and authority as mentioned. At Edinburgh on 13 February in the year of the Lord 1546 [1547], and in the fifth year of our reign (Confirmation of Treaty by Mary Queen of Scots)

That this our grant, or confirmation, have perpetual authority and full strength, we have had this charter marked with our seal. Dated at Les Andelys, in the year of the incarnation of the Word, 1199 (Charter of Eleanor of Aquitaine to Oleron, 1199)

And so that this our gift may continue firm and unimpaired in future times, we have reinforced it with the protection of our seal and the subscription of witnesses. With these witnesses: [list of witnesses]. Dated at Le Vaudreuil by the hand of Roger, our chaplain, in the 1199th year of the incarnation of the Word (Charter of Eleanor of Aquitaine to Andreas of Chauvigny)

For the rest, in order that this our imperial decree may, for all ages, remain valid and unshaken, we have ordered the present charter to be written and to be sealed with the impress of our seal, suitable witnesses to be called in whose names are as follows: Pilgrim, patriarch of Aquileija, etc. (Charter establishing the Duchy of Austria)

Also, this act being produced in our parliament, we shall cause the same to be ratified, allowed and approved by the three estates thereof in all points. Given under our great seal and subscribed by us and the said lords of our secret council at our palace of Holyroodhouse, 19 March 1566 [1567], and of our reign the 25th year. (Charter of Mary, Queen of Scots)

Doing The Research: Good Places To Start

The Internet Medieval Sourcebook from Fordham University ( This site contains links to a huge number of texts of various kinds, including secular legal documents, cannon law documents, chronicles and fiction. Nearly all of the documents have been translated into modern English but some are available in the original text and language as well.

The Avalon Project website from Yale Law School ( The documents are all in modern English translation.

A collection of primary source material relating specifically to urban life in the medieval era. The documents are all in modern English translation.

Epistolæ: Medieval Women's Letters from the 4th – 13th Centuries
( In many instances, the site provides both a
modern translation and a transcription of the Latin (usually) original.

Records of the Parliaments of Scotland to 1707 ( The site
provides modern English and transcriptions of the original manuscripts in Latin, Scots nd
occasionally French.

Anthology of Chancery English (
Primary source documents with no modern translation, but the Middle English is generally readable with practice.

The On-Line Reference Book for Medieval Studies (

The On-Line Medieval and Classical Library (

The Works of Queen Elizabeth I (
Good for getting a feel for Renaissance language

How to tell which saint’s day it is: 

Friday, December 5, 2014

Guthfrith's Silver Rapier

Guthfrith Yrlingsson, the new Baron of Ruantallan, is an excellent fencer.  He is so good, in fact, that had you bet me money before last Saturday that he was a member of the Silver Rapier already, I would have taken that bet.  As it turned out, we discovered he wasn't when someone else in Ruantallan was inducted into that Order.   TRMs immediately corrected that oversight.

Since this was an immediate award, there was no scroll at the time.   A scribe asked that I put together some fitting language for Guthfrith's backlog.   Here it is.  It's a little earlier than Guthfrith's persona (the source text is c. 1330), but I liked the rhythm of some of the language and adjusted the rest of it to be consistent with later practices.   I also changed the archaic "bailies" to "bailiffs" because I'm fairly sure that most people don't know what a "bailie" is.

Edward, by right of arms King of the East, and Thyra, by agency of the same right the Queen, to our archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, earls, barons, sheriffs, provosts, ministers and all our bailiffs and faithful men, greetings.  Know that we have heard good, honest and true report of the prowess, valor, nobility, skill and excellence in the art of the rapier displayed by our good and faithful Guthfrith Yrlingsson; and desiring in consideration of the foregoing to honour the person of the same Guthfrith; we do therefore of our lawful authority give, grant and by the present charter confirm unto the same Guthfrith membership in perpetuity in our Order of the Silver Rapier, with all of the same rights, privileges, liberties, royalties and  all other things which pertain or may pertain to the said Order, without any reservation.  In testimony of which we have set our signs manual to this present charter at Ruantallan upon November 28 in the forty-ninth year of the Society.

Tuesday, December 2, 2014

A bit of perfectly period schtick

+Thyra Eiriksdottir wanted to do "something" for Jonathan Rankin O'Rose, a fencer from Ruantallan who does a pirate/privateer persona.  As with her vendetta against the pineapple, she decided to unleash me on the problem.  Because +Thyra Eiriksdottir enables me.  :-)

I searched around for interesting letter of marque language and decided that letters of marque were not particularly fun or interesting.  Besides, everyone who does a sea-going persona has a letter of marque.  What I hit on instead was the writ given by King Henry VII of England to John Cabot and his sons to conduct exploration in North America.  John Cabot and his sons eventually "discovered" Newfoundland and, not incidentally, Nova Scotia.   What could be more perfect for a Ruantallan seafarer than a license to discover Nova Scotia?  Plus, it's a document from Henry VII, which is around the time that His Majesty plays.

Beyond the research that got me to this letter, there wasn't a whole ton of creativity involved.  I decided what parts could be deleted without doing harm to the intent of the letter and the rhythm of the schtick.  Also, the terms "writ" and "letters patent" have meanings in the SCA, so I had to take those words out where I found them.   And, of course, reference to lands "unknown to all Christians" was going to sound awful to modern ears, so out that came.

Here is the resulting "License" issued to Jonathan Rankin O'Rose this weekend, in all of its glory.  I read it in Court myself and made sure to play it as schticky fun so that the audience wouldn't doze off.  I think it worked -- the recipient was laughing so hard at the end his whole face was scarlet.

    By Edward the King.  By Thyra the Queen. Greeting: Be it known and made manifest that we have given and granted as by these presents we give and grant, for us and our heirs, to our well beloved Jonathan Rankin O'Rose full and free authority, faculty and power to sail to all parts, regions and coasts of the eastern, western, southern and northern seas, under our banners, flags and ensigns, with five ships or vessels of whatsoever burden and quality they may be, and with so many and such mariners and men as he may wish to take with him in the said ships, to find, discover and investigate whatsoever islands, countries, regions or provinces, in whatsoever part of the world placed, which before this time were unknown to Easterners. We have also granted to him, and have given licence to set up our aforesaid banners and ensigns in any town, city, castle, island or mainland whatsoever, newly found by him.
    And that the before-mentioned Jonathan may conquer, occupy and possess whatsoever such towns, castles, cities and islands by him thus discovered as our vassal and governor lieutenant therein, acquiring for us the dominion, title and jurisdiction of the same towns, castles, cities, islands and mainlands so discovered; in such a way nevertheless that of all the fruits, profits, emoluments, commodities, gains and revenues accruing from this voyage, the said Jonathan shall be bound and under obligation for his every voyage, as often as he shall arrive at our port of Ruantallan, at which his is bound and holden only to arrive, all necessary charges and expenses incurred by him having been deducted, to pay to us, either in goods or money, the fifth part of the whole capital gained, we giving and granting to the said Jonathan that he shall be free and exempt from all payment of customs on all and singular the goods and merchandise that he may bring back with them from those places thus newly discovered.
   And further we have given and granted to the said Jonathan that all mainlands, islands, towns, cities, castles and other places whatsoever discovered by him, however numerous they may happen to be, may not be frequented or visited by any other subjects of ours whatsoever without the licence of the aforesaid Jonathan, on pain of the loss as well of the ships or vessels daring to sail to these places discovered, as of all goods whatsoever. And we further will and strictly command all and singular our subjects as well by land as by sea that they shall render good assistance to the aforesaid Jonathan, and that they shall give him all their favour and help as well in fitting out the ships or vessels as in buying stores and provisions with their money and in providing the other things which they must take with them on the said voyage.
    In witness whereof, we set our signs manual and cause this our grant and charter to be announced in open Court upon 29 November in the forty-ninth year of the Society in our Barony of Ruantallan.

Award of Arms for Rozalin Vella

My frequent co-conspirator +Naomi F. Anderson asked me to make a text appropriate to go with a scroll based on a 16th century fencing manual.   None of us knew the lady, so it's a little vague on the details of her merit.  But it sure sounded nice.

Edward, by right of arms King of the East, and Thyra our Queen, to all and sundry our judges and ministers of law, lieges and subjects whom it concerns to whose knowledge these our letters shall come, greetings.  Know that, in our parliament, with the three estates of our realm present, having viewed and understood the common profit and the advantage to our crown from recognizing those good and notable subjects whose labors have enriched our lands of Ruantallan, and having examined and discussed many and varied other causes and reasonable precedents for the acknowledgement and recognition of the same, we did award and by these our present letters do award unto our subject Rozalin Vella the right to bear such Arms as are just, fitting and proper for a person of her nobility and honored labors, to wit: _______________________________

And we do further will and command the said Rozalin shall bear such Arms henceforward freely, tranquilly, fully, wholly, honorably, well and in peace, without impediment, revocation or obstacle whatsoever. At Ruantallan, upon 29 November, in the forty-ninth year of the Society.

It's based on a couple of 16th century Scottish sources because I've been hip deep in Scots of late.

Award Mad Libs (or something like it)

I often face an interesting conundrum when writing award texts: people equate "long" with "love."   I have done period-appropriate short texts and gotten the "you don't love me" reaction, which I find odd and perplexing.  There are cultures and eras where a lengthy text is not appropriate.  Anglo-Saxon, for instance.  When working in Middle and Early Modern English, my length averages 250 words.  I certainly can do more, but I don't have a problem if a scribe tells me s/he needs less.  The request for only 140 characters was a little difficult, but even that I managed.

I'm throwing out here some fill-in-the-blank type texts for those scribes who want to sound more period but don't want to deal with lots of words.

Sample 1:  By _____ the King and ____ the Queen.  To our faithful [recipient], right trusty and well-beloved we greet you well.   Know that your actions, deeds and labors on behalf of the realm find great favor in our sight. Therefore, as symbol and token of your merit, we do by these present letters award you Arms in the form following: [blazon].  Done upon [date] in [place].

Sample 2:  _______, King of the East, and _____ his Queen, to all to whom the present letters shall come, greetings and every good thing.  Let it be known to all that our subject [recipient] is of good and noble character, and has distinguished him/herself by good works in ___________________________.  That these good works be not forgotten, we do now Award unto the said [recipient's first name] such Arms as are just fitting and proper: [blazon].  Enacted at [place] upon [date].

Sample 3:  We, _____ and _____, King and Queen of the East, by advice and good deliberation of our council, find it meet to endow our servant [recipient] with such rewards as are just, fitting and proper for one of his/her nobility, bearing and good works.  Thus we do by these present letters award the said [recipient] Arms.  So ordered by our hand and signs manual upon [date] in [place].

Feel free to use and abuse these, just give me appropriate author credit if you use more than 50% of the text.

Friday, November 21, 2014

Period or Not: Things that sound like "Kira"

This discussion will be appearing in the Gazette next month, but I wanted to start compiling notes now (while my brain is trying to wrestle with ERISA law concepts during lunch).


Cera was the name of at least three Irish saints who lived prior to c. 1200 CE.  It is registerable as a pre-1200 spelling of the name.  The post-1200 spelling is Ceara, which is also registerable as  a saint's name.

Ciar is another female Gaelic name with a similar sound, also the name of a saint appearing prior to c. 1200 in Ireland.


Kira is found as a female given name in Russian, dated to c. 1202.   "Russian Names Database" by Paul Wickenden of Thanet (


Kyrra Sranis; Female; Marriage; 02 Jan 1629; Evangelisch, Schotten, Oberhessen, Hesse-Darmstadt; Batch: M92548-1


NCMJ (1999) lists Kira as a historical surname dated to 1332.


Using surname as given name:
John Kyrre
Gender: Male
Burial Date: 24 Dec 1585
Burial Place: Cranbrook
Indexing Project (Batch) Number: B02880-3

Name: Richard T...Herst
Spouse's Name: Mergery Keyre
Event Date: 13 Aug 1576
Event Place: Cranbrook, Kent, England
Indexing Project (Batch) Number: M01834-4

Thursday, November 13, 2014

Alys's Simple Guide to Naming Awards and Orders (For People Who Are Not Book Heralds)

This is intended as a guide to be given to Crowns, Coronets, Seneschals and other non-book heralds with simple guidelines about how to name awards and orders in a period way.  For book heralds, of course, the current best sources are "Medieval Secular Order Names" by Juliana de Luna and "Registering an Order Name in the SCA" by Ursula Georges.

What's The Difference Between An Award And An Order?

Administratively, there isn't one.  Heralds call them Order Names for our administrative purposes and I will do the same in this Guide because typing "award or order" gets annoying.  There may be a difference in a particular Kingdom's culture, but that is not official.  For example, some people think that an award can be given multiple times, but an order only once, but that is neither period practice nor written anywhere in law.

How To Build An Order Name

Each order name must have two things: (1) a designator from the list of designators approved by the College of Arms and (2) a substantive element that matches the way orders were named in period.  [SENA NPN.1]  A designator is necessary so that we can identify the item as an order name rather than as some other kind of name.

In the name "Order of the Silver Crescent," Order is the designator and Silver Crescent is the substantive element.

What Designators Can We Use?

The current (December 2015) list of approved designators is found in Appendix E of SENA, in the May 2013 Cover Letter and in the November 2014 Cover Letter.  The approved designators are:

But What About Legion?  

Legion is usable as a designator for household names.  Unfortunately, it is no longer available for award/order names.  [March 2010 Cover Letter]

Picking A Substantive Element

The substantive element of an order name has to follow period naming practices.  Currently (December 2015), we can document the following patterns for naming orders:

Order of Heraldic Charge -- for example, Order of the Maunche

Order of Heraldic Color + Heraldic Charge  - for example, Order of the Silver Crescent
Only heraldic tinctures and the ordinary names for the heraldic tinctures can be used.  So "Order of the Blue Tyger" or "Order of the Tyger Azure" is fine.  "Order of the Teal Tyger" or "Order of the Sapphire Tyger" is not.

Order of Physical Descriptive + Heraldic Charge -- for example, Order of the Crowned Ibex
This category is very limited.  It has been allowed only for adjectives describing clear visual modifications to the heraldic charge -- thus, Crowned Ibex (period example) and Winged [charge] (SCA example).

Order of Two Heraldic Charges -- for example, Order of the Unicorn and Maiden

Order of Abstract Quality or Virtue -- for example, Order of Chivalry

Order of Saint's Name -- for example, Order of Saint Michael
For this pattern, one can also use pagan deities in place of saints.  So, for example, Order of Artemis.

Order of Saint + Place name -- for example, Order of Saint George of Rougemont

Order of Saint's Object -- for example, Order of Saint Georges Shield

Order of Person's Name -- for example, Order of Bellina
This pattern allows orders to be named after the given name of the founder or inspiration.  We have yet to document order names based on the surnames of people.

Order of the Piece of Armor/Clothing -- for example, Order of the Belt

Order of Place Name -- for example, Order of Loreto

Order of Duke/King of Place Name - for example, l'ordre du Duc de Bourgongne

But . . . This Name Doesn't Fit Your Patterns And It Is Registered!

There are a couple of reasons why a past registration is no guarantee that a similar name can be registered now.  First, our body of research and heraldic knowledge changes over time.  We find that things we thought were good period practice actually weren't.  We also sometimes find that things we thought were not period can be documented after all.   Second, the applicable heraldic rules change over time.  Sometimes those rules changes make it easier to register certain things, sometimes they have the opposite effect.  Third, a particular group may be able to take advantage of a rule that your group cannot for various reasons.

Do We Have To Use Real Saints?

The current (December 2015) SCA heraldry rules allow you to make up saints as long as the root name of the person is real.

For example, "the Company of Saint Kenrics Beard" is a registerable order name, even though there was not a real Saint Kenric because: (1)  Kenric is a documentable period name; and (2) a beard is a documentable period heraldic charge.

You'll notice that there's no apostrophe in "Kenrics Beard."  Whether or not an apostrophe + s is required to make something possessive depends on whether you are using the period form or relying on one of the rules that allows for use of modern English.  Since this is intended as a "Simple Guide," this is one of the issues on which you should consult a names herald.

How To Figure Out Whether Something Is A Period Heraldic Charge  

There is an SCA resource called the Pictorial Dictionary of Heraldry that can be very helpful.  It includes citations and pictures of period forms of heraldic charges.  Experienced heralds will also have access to period rolls of arms and armorials (collections of blazons or images).

Clearing Conflicts The Easy Way

Some order names are quite popular and have already been registered by other groups.  However, the current (December 2015) heraldic rules allow a very simple way of clearing the conflict: adding the group name that is giving out the award.  The Order of the Beacon of Carillion (registered 11/2012 LoAR) does not conflict with the Order of the Beacon of Endeweard (registered 9/2013 LoAR).  [SENA NPN.3.C]

Wednesday, November 12, 2014

Baronial Investiture Scroll: Jean-Paul Ducasse and Lylie of Penhyll

My friends +Ben Hennessey  and +Brenda Janetsky  wanted one scroll for their Investiture as the new territorial Baron and Baroness of Concordia of the Snows.  I wanted to expand my repertoire of period text styles beyond what I've been using so far.  So I dug back into one of my favorite websites, the Records of the Parliaments of Scotland to 1707 for a couple of the texts that I had tagged as "use later."

Baronial Investiture scrolls are some of my favorites to work on, because they allow me to use more authentic language for what is being done.  The Crown is actually giving to a landed Baron/ess the sorts of rights and privileges found in period legal documents.

There is a trend in many of the Scots documents to have a notary official sign off on the act of the Crown.  There is an introduction written by the notary, then the proclamation/charter from the Crown, then an affirmation by the notary.  I've found this style hard to adapt into more usual award scrolls, not least of which because it adds length to the text.  However, since I am the person responsible for running Court for Their Majesties Edward & Thyra, and I knew I would be at the Investiture, this style seemed ideal for Jean Paul and Lylie's Investiture text.  

And here we go, based on several 14th century Scottish charters with notary attestations:

On 8 November in the forty-ninth year of the Society, sitting in their Court in the Barony of Concordia of the Snows, Edward, most excellent King of the Easterners and Thyra, his Queen, issued and caused to be issued the following charter:

Edward, by the right of arms, King, and Thyra, by agency of the same right, Queen, to the justiciars, sheriffs, provosts and their bailies and the rest of our ministers and faithful men to whom these present letters shall come, greetings.  Know that it is our will that our good and faithful Jean Paul Ducasse and Lylie of Penhyll shall be and hereby are invested, endowed and exalted as Baron and Baroness of the Barony of Concordia of the Snows, and that they shall hold the aforesaid lands from us and our heirs in fee and heritage by all their rightful boundaries and divisions as freely and peacefully, fully, integrally and honourably with all their liberties, profits, easements and lawful pertinents.  And we do further declare that the said Jean Paul and Lylie shall from this day henceforth enjoy all and singular their lands, rents, goods and possessions appertaining thereto, existing at our fealty and peace, as freely, fully and peacefully as any and all such Barons have enjoyed them at any time of our predecessors kings of the East, and they shall dispose freely from their said lands, rents, goods and possessions according as seems to be most expedient to them without any impediment.  So we order you, and each of you, firmly and under threat of the appropriate penalty, that you should not inflict any evil, annoyance, injustice or impose any impediment or aggravation on the said Jean-Paul and Lylie , or permit these things to be inflicted on them, by whatever means you can resist that, contrary to the tenor of our grant and intention declared above. In testimony of which matter we ordered these our letters to be affirmed by our signs manual and to be read aloud in our Court and to be placed in the keeping of the said Jean-Paul and Lylie as perpetual record.

And I, Alys Mackyntoich, Eastern Crown Herald, while all the foregoing was being so conducted and done, was present in person, and I saw and heard these things done in this way, and have rendered them in this public form, and I signed it with my usual and customary sign, having been asked and required, in faith and testimony of all the foregoing.

My attestation  is based off of this document:

Sunday, November 2, 2014

Fealty Oath

So . . . . +Stephen Wright  was sworn in as the new Kingdom Rapier Marshal yesterday.  On Thursday he asked if I would write him a period fealty oath in Scots for him.  Sure, I said.

Because I had a short time frame in which to turn around the product, I resorted to the easiest formula for homage and fealty to find on the Internet:  Modus Faciendi Homagium & Fidelitatem (The Manner of Doing Homage & Fealty), c. 1275.  As these formulas continued to be cited in charters and statute books well into the 15th century, relying on them wasn't too much of a cheat.   After some digging in the Dictionary of the Older Scots Tongue, I put the language into very late 16th century Scots spellings so that they would be fairly close to modern (since I anticipated at best ten minutes to go over the pronunciation with Frasier at the event).

Here's what I came up with, in modern English and then in Scots:

Hear you my lord Edward and my lady Thyra; I, Frasier MacLeod, shall be to you both faithful and true and shall owe my Fidelity unto you and unto the Kingdom of the East, and lawfully shall do such Customs and Services as my Duty is to you and to the Kingdom as Marshal of Fence, from this day henceforward and for as long as I hold of you the office aforenamed.

Here yow my laird Edward and lady Thyra, I, Frasier MacLeod, sall be to yow boith faithfull and trewe and sall ow my fidelitee unto yow and unto the kyngdome of the Hest and laufullie sall doo sich Customes and Serwices as my Duety is to yow and to the kyngdome as Marschael of Defence from thys daye henceforward and for as long as I hald of yow the offyce beforesaid.

Beautiful, right?

Then someone left the paper with the words on it in his pants at the hotel . . . . .

Matilda Wynter's AoA

Since the memory of men slips away swiftly, lest any difficulty of controversy should arise over this among those to come, we, Edward, by the right of arms King of the East, and Thyra, by agency of the same right our Queen, do by these present letters signify to the future as well as the present, that, by the counsel of illustrious persons concerning the good works of Matilda Wynter, we find the said Matilda to be noble, faithful and deserving of such rewards as are within our sole and lawful authority to bestow.  We do therefore give, endow and award the said Matilda with arms in the form and matter set forth herein: Ermine, a chevron cotised gules.  And we do further decree, instruct and ordain that the said Matilda shall bear these arms singularly and in perpetuity, free from every disturbance of whatever power.  That this our charter shall remain hereafter firm and unimpaired, we have ordered it to be marked with our signs manual upon 1 November at Stonemarche in the forty-ninth year of the Society.

Sunday, October 19, 2014

Elizabeth Elenore Lovell's Silver Crescent

To our beloved and faithful Elizabeth Elenore Lovell, Edward, King of the East and Thyra, our queen, send greetings.  The favor of your excellence is neither new nor doubtful; always habitual, always exhibited, it does not admit of diminution or interruption. We rejoice that our realm has a friend in such a person, who strives always, most devotedly and faithfully, without surcease or prorogation, for the honor and magnificence of our persons, the persons of our ancestors, and our estate.  We want, therefore, and by these present letters do hereby pronounce, ordain and establish that you shall possess and enjoy hereafter, in full and in peace, the rights, privileges, advantages and franchises of a member of the Order of the Silver Crescent, including the right to wear upon your person the livery and ensign of the Order.  Let no man damage or diminish the integrity of the aforesaid rights, privileges, advantages, and franchises in any aspect, nor violate in any way this our Royal will.  If anyone should attempt to do so, let him incur danger to body and goods from the authority of the Tyger Throne. That these gifts of ours, justly and legally and freely done, may remain undisturbed in the future, we have had this charter marked with the protection of our signs manual, for the force of perpetual authority.  Dated at Bhakail, in the forty-ninth year of the Society, upon 18 October.

Friday, October 3, 2014

Marguerite's Cypher

Having missed large swaths of the Last Court of Brennan and Caoilfhionn, I did not know whether this had gone out.  Now that I know it did go out, I can post.

This was pulled together from multiple sources to help out Katrusha, the scribe, who had never done a Cypher scroll before.  I put it together as an example of what could be done.  As it turned out, she ended up using it as the actual text.  You can Katrusha's excellent scribal work here:

One of the difficulties in writing cool stuff for +Meredith Bailin Hull  during this reign was that Roman Empresses lacked many of the fun titles that their male counterparts had.  Augusta carried with it lots of key powers, including the authority to mint their own coinage.  Nobilissima was really more of a Greek/Byzantine thing than a truly "Roman" title.  And Mater Patriae, while authentic, means "mother of the Fatherland" and is not at all sexy.   So "Augusta et Nobilissima" it was.  Maybe by the next time she is on the throne I'll have time to look up some Gaelic titles that don't sound dirty  :-)

As for the text, it is in what I call the "whereas, whereas, therefore" style that is the easiest way to move towards making language sound like a period legal document.   Whereas [insert statement of fact] + whereas [insert statement of fact], therefore [this is what the Crown is doing].  It's also the easiest formula to remember if you have to make up something very quickly, such as when the Crown decides to give out an award right there in Court without warning you first.

With that being said, here is the text for the Empress's chief retainer:

Caoilfhionn Augusta et Nobilissima, Empress of the Eternal East, to all who see or hear these words, greetings and every good thing.   Whereas it is right, just, necessary and proper that those who have labored in good faith and diligence to the glory of our Imperial selves be rewarded for their faithfulness; and whereas Marguerite de Sainte Nazaire has found great favor in our eyes as our chief retainer; therefore, in acknowledgement and recognition of her travails on our behalf and for the love we bear her, we do hereby by these present letters invest and endow the said Marguerite with our Cypher, the said emblem and signacle of our favor to be borne about her person at all times to come and in perpetuity; And so that this our gift may continue firm and unimpaired in future times, we have reinforced it with the protection of our seal and sign manual and caused it to be read before witnesses.  Done upon 27 September in the forty-ninth year of the Society.

Sunday, September 28, 2014

Queen Thyra's Writ Against Pineapples

Her recently installed Majesty wanted to do some schtick in Royal Court.  At Pennsic, there had been a pineapple target on the archery range.  This particular target vexed Thyra greatly because she was unable to hit it.

I've always wanted the chance to play with some of the penalty language of period documents.  So with Her Majesty's willing permission, we read the following in Court yesterday.  (The ears thing is from the source document.  I suspect we'll be seeing a lot of pineapples with Mr. Potato Head ears this reign).

By Thyra the Queen.  Having considered that the peace of our realm is greatly disrupted by the predations of the dread, awful and terrible creature known as the piña de Indes, called by some the “pine-apple,” lately brought from the New World to our shores by agents of Spain for nefarious purposes, and our own Royal Person having been greatly and foully troubled and harassed by the same upon the archery range at the Pennsic, and wishing to restore and bring our realm to justice, tranquility and peace, We do therefore condemn and perpetually exile from this our Eastern Realm all such piña de Indes now dwelling herein.  Should any such piña de Indes be hereafter found within the lands where our will holds the power of law, their goods shall be escheat to the Crown, and they shall be put in the Crown’s irons for their trespass, then their ears shall be removed and be nailed to the market cross before they are removed from this realm.  And if thereafter they are found again within our Eastern Realm, they shall be hanged.  We do further prohibit and ban, with the full force of our royal authority, for the term of our reign, all and any of our subjects, spiritual and temporal, from bringing the dread and terrible piña de Indes into the Royal Presence under the pain of treason, loss and forfeiture of life, land and goods.

Antonio's Cypher

Brennanus Mediterreanus, semper Augustus, Nobilissimus et Invictus, to all those whom these present letters shall see or shall hear, greetings.  Know ye that we, considering the manifold labors and travails that we have charged our servant Antonio Patrasso to undertake in our name for the greater glory of our person and the Empire; and the said Antonio having so done and so borne such burdens with constancy, faith, honor, fortitude and forbearance; We are therefore moved to bestow upon the said Antonio our Cypher; and we further command that our emblem and signacle so bestowed be borne hereafter upon the said Antonio’s person at all times, the which and singular commandment shall be observed and kept upon pain of deprivation, sequestration of fruits and benefices, suspension and such other coercion as we may deem fitting and just; and this our letter verifying the same we have caused to be marked with our sign manual upon this 27th day of September, in the forty-ninth year of the Society, being the forty-sixth year of the Eastern Empire.

Billyfish's Cypher

We, Caoilfhionn Augusta et Nobilissima, Empress of the East, to all present as well as future who will see this page, greetings.  So that cupidity, the mother of conflicts, material of disputes, enemy of peace, follower of envy, fomenter of discord, may be reined in, limited by the path of law, it is necessary that the usefulness of actions and feats and the good deeds of the pious be preserved by writings and charters, lest through the passage and mutability of men oblivion steal the good which providence left and provided to the successors of those who came before.  Therefore, we have revealed to all who look at this page, that Einarr Njortharson, captain of our guard, our chiefest protector and servant, be endowed and invested with our Queen's Cypher as a sign of our favor and of the love we bear him.  And so that the said investment and endowment may enjoy the perpetual force of stability, we have caused this page to be strengthened by the force of our sign manual upon this 27th day of September in the forty-ninth year of the Society.

Ygraine's Tyger of the East

The scribe chose a calligraphy and illumination motif from 1500 England.  I did the spelling c. 1500 to match.

By Edward the Kyng; by Thyra the Queene.  Wherfor, desyryng effectuously the peas, tranquillite & wele publique of this Lande, it is thought necessarie & behoveful that personnes of notable vertue be honoured as exaumplyres of our Eastern Reaulme; & Wherfor, the excellent & feithfull Ygraine of Kellswood is possessed of greate prudence, justice, noblesse, singuler confidence & excellent vertue; tharfor, with certayne knowlage of the seid Ygraine’s greate merit, we do by these present lettres cause her name to be wryt upon the rolles of the Tygers of the East, & further by these presents do approve, ratyfye & conferm unto the aforseid Ygraine, all & sundrie gifts, graunts, rights & privileges formerly made by us or our predecessors the kyngs and quenes of the East to other personnes so honoured.  Doune upon 27 Septembre in the fourtie-ninth yere of the Societee, first of our reigne, in Bergental.

Friday, September 26, 2014

Easy, Fill in the Blank, Blanket Letters of Permission to Conflict

There is no charge for filing a blanket letter of permission to conflict.  Here are easy fill in the blank forms.  I will accept them at events or even by e-mail as long as you sign it with your legal name and scan a copy with the signature and date.

Blanket Permission to Conflict: Name
I , _______________________________________________________________________________
known in the Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc. (“SCA”) as
hereby waive the full protection of my registered name.  I grant permission to any future submitter to register a name that is [select one]:
(a)      not identical to my registered name.
(b)   at least a syllable different from my registered name.
I understand that this permission can be withdrawn by written notice to the Laurel Sovereign of Arms, but that conflicting items registered while it is in force will remain registered.


Blanket Permission to Conflict: Armory
I , _______________________________________________________________________________
known in the Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc. (“SCA”) as
hereby waive the full protection of my registered device/badge [circle one and give blazon],
I grant permission to any future submitter to register armory that is [select one]:
(a)    not identical to my registered armory
(b)   at least one countable step different from my registered armory.
I understand that this permission can be withdrawn by written notice to the Laurel Sovereign of Arms, but that conflicting items registered while it is in force will remain registered.


Blanket Permission to Conflict: Household or Alternate Name
I , _______________________________________________________________________________
known in the Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc. (“SCA”) as
hereby waive the full protection of the name
____________________________________________________________________________, which is registered to me.  I grant permission to any future submitter to register a name that is [select one]:
(a)    not identical to the above name.
(b)   at least a syllable different from the above name.
I understand that this permission can be withdrawn by written notice to the Laurel Sovereign of Arms, but that conflicting items registered while it is in force will remain registered.


Wednesday, September 24, 2014

Sample Heraldic Wills

Apropos of a discussion being had today, here are some sample form SCA heraldic wills.  All of them need to be dated and signed with one's legal name to be effective.

1.  Heraldic Will: Release

I , ___________________________________________________________________________
known in the Society for Creative Anachronism, Incorporated (SCA) as

hereby state that, upon my death, the following names and armory registered to me in the SCA be released:

[list of items]

2.  Heraldic Will: Transfer to Single Heir

I , ___________________________________________________________________________
known in the Society for Creative Anachronism, Incorporated (SCA) as

hereby state that ________________________________________________________________,

known in the SCA as ________________________________________________________________
is my heraldic heir and that all names and armory registered to me in the SCA be transferred to him/her upon my death.

3.  Heraldic Will: Multiple Dispositions

I , ___________________________________________________________________________
known in the Society for Creative Anachronism, Incorporated (SCA) as

hereby state that, upon my death, the names and armory registered to me in the SCA shall be disposed of as follows:

[item] to be transferred to [legal name of person], known in the SCA as [Society name]

[item] to be released


4.  Heraldic Will: Transfer to Kingdom 

I , ___________________________________________________________________________
known in the Society for Creative Anachronism, Incorporated (SCA) as 

hereby state that, upon my death, all names and armory registered to me in the SCA shall be transferred to the Office of the Brigantia Principal Herald, who shall thereafter have authority to grant permission to conflict with my names and armory.

Tuesday, September 16, 2014

Names from the Signet of Matilda of Tuscany (1072-1115)

by Alys Mackyntoich (Alissa Pyrich)
June 2015

The data in this article was extracted from Latin-language charters and letters written by Matilda, Countess of Tuscany between 1072 and 1115.  These documents are published on Epistolæ (, a website maintained by Columbia University collecting writings to and from women in the Middle Ages. The letters are transcribed in the original Latin with translations into modern English by Professor Joan Ferrante of Columbia University.

Naming Patterns

1.      For Men
The data shows four primary naming patterns for men:
[given name] + de + [locative]
[given name] + filius + [father’s name in genitive form]
[given name] + [father’s name in the genitive] + filius
[given name] + [surname]
In addition, many men were identified by their titles and occupations.  For example:
Ardericus notarius sacri palatii = Ardericus, notary of the sacred palace
Lambertus iudex = Lambertus, judge
A small number of complex name patterns are found in the data:
Azonis filii Ubaldi de Parma (1092)
Alegro Iohannis Robaldi (1109)

2.      For Women
            Women were identified primarily by their titles.  For example:
Matildis comitissa et ducatrix = Matilda, countess and duchess
Berta abbatissa = Abbess Bertha
There is also evidence of women being known as the daughters of their fathers, in the pattern [given name] + filia + [father’s name in the genitive form].  Finally, one woman, Natalia Mazola, had an unmarked surname.

Given Names
Not all spellings found in the text can be used as registerable name spellings.  Latin spelling varies depending on whether the given name appears as the subject or object of the original sentence.  Note that only the nominative forms can be used to create given names for SCA purposes.  Nominative forms usually end in –us.  Forms ending in –i generally are genitive forms and can be used to create patronymic surnames using the pattern [given name] + filius or filia + [genitive father’s name].
The bolded header forms are the most common nominative forms of the given names.  The forms under the heading are those actually found in the texts.  Where the nominative form is not found in any of the texts, I have extrapolated the likely nominative form based on other period examples.  In instances where I was not entirely sure about the nominative form, I have so indicated with a question mark.  The numbers in the parenthesis are the dates of documents in which the name is found.

1.      Male Given Names
Aginulfi (1106)
Alberici (1107)
Albericus (1106, 1108, 1115)
Alberti (1106, 1107)
Albertus (1073, 1106, 1108, 1114, 1115)
Albezo (1109)
Albizum (1109)
Alegro (1109)
Alexandri (1080)
Alexandrum (1104)
Allucci (1073)
Alo (1080)
Aluardus (1102)
Anselmus (1104)
Araldello (1073)
Arderici (1107)
Arderico (1080)
Ardericus (1080, 1100)
Arduinus (1114, 1115)
Arialdi (1107)
Ato (1109)
Aubertus (1107)
Azo (1108)
Azone (1080)
Azonis (1092)
Bardi (1072-76)
Baroncioni (1073)
Belencionus (1102)
Belentionis (1107)
Benedicti (1100)
Benedicto (1073)
Bernardi (1106, 1114)
Bernardo de Laluza (1080, 1114)
Bernardus (1106)
Bonefacii (1073, 1107)
Bonefatii (1073)
Bonifacii (1102, 1108, 1115)
Bonifacio (1115)
Bonisenioris (1109)
Bonoseniore (1114)
Bonussenior (1114)
Bontempo (1107)
Bosonis (1107, 1115)
Bosolinus (1106)
Bulgari (1108)
Burrello (1073)
Cadalus (1114)
Carbone (1073)
Cono (1073)
Conradus (1073)
Cosbertum (1109)
Crispi (1092)
Dibiertus (1106)
Dodo (1106)
Dodonis (1074)
Draco (1114)
Enurardus (1114)
Fantinus (1073)
Flaiperti (1073)
Flaiperto (1073)
Flaipertus (1073)
Florus (1108)
Fredulfi (1073)
Frederici (1073)
Frogerii (1100)
Frogerius (1100)
Frugerii (1106)
Gandulfi (1106)
Gerardi (1107)
Gerardo (1073)
Gerardus (1073, 1115)
Gherardus notaries (1073)
Girardi (1109)
Girardo (1073)
Girardum (1109)
Girardus (1106)
Gezone (1080)
Giselbertus (1080)
Glamdulfus (1073)
Glandulfo (1073)
Gosberto (1109)
Gotefredi (1073)
Gotefredo (1073, 1075)
Gottefredus (1073)
Gudtefredus (1073)
Gregorii (after 1084)
Gregorius (1074, 1075, 1079)
Gualfredi (1073)
Gualfredo (1080)
Guelfo (1090)
Welfo (1090)
Guibertus (1106)
Guido (1073, 1092, 1100, 1114, 1115)
Guidone (1100)
Guidonis (1073, 1100)
Vuidonis (1106)
Guifredo (1073)
Vuifredus (1073)
Guilielmum (1074)
Guinithi (1073)
Guinitho (1073)
Guizoli (1106)
Einrici (1092)
Heinricum (1079)
Heinricus (after 1084)
Heriberto (1092)
Heribertum (1074)
Herricus (1073)
Huberto (1080)
Hubertus (1073)
Hugo (1073, 1080)
Hugone (1080)
Hugheri?  (1073)
Hungaro (1073)
Ioanni (1108)
Ioannis (1108)
Iohannes (1102, 1106, 1107, 1109)
Iohannis (1102, 1106)
Lamberti (1072-76)
Lamberto (1073, 1080)
Lamberto (1080)
Lambertus (1080)
Lampreto (1073)
Lanberti (1073)
Lanberto (1073)
Lanbertus (1073)
Lanfrancus (1102, 1108, 1115)
Leonis (1072-76, 1108)
Liutharius (1106)
Lupo (1080)
Luponem (1080)
Maleadobadus 1114
Manfredi (1107)
Manfredo (1114)
Manfredum (1109)
Manfredus (1109)
Marchisello (1080)
Martini (1073)
Martino (1115)
Martinus (1102, 1115)
Morecti (1073)
Nordilo (1080)
Nordilus (1115)
Nordino (1092)
Normanno (1080)
Odaldum (1109)
Odo (1073)
Opizo (1102, 1115)
Pagano (1080)
Paganus (1100, 1106)
Pandolfi (1073)
Paulus (1106)
Petroni (1079)
Petri (1073, 1108)
Petro (1106)
Petrus (1106, 1100, 1115)
Pisani (1073)
Ragimundi (1107)
Raginerius (1114)
Raimundo (1073)
Raineri (1073)
Rainerius (1072-76, 1115)
Richardi (1107)
Roberto (1080)
Robertum (1074)
Rodulfus (1109)
Rodulfus (1108)
Rogerio (1073)
Rolando (1073, 1080, 1109)
Rolandum (1109)
Rozonis (1092)
Rusticus (1073)
Sasso (1106, 1114)
Saxo (1115)
Seniorectus (1073)
Sigefredi (1106)
Sigefredo (1073)
Sigefredus (1107)
Sigezo (1102)
Sigismundo (1073)
Sismundus (1073)
Stephanus (1106)
Tebertus (1114)
Teodaldo (1115)
Teuthaldini (1107)
Teuzo (1114)
Theodericus (1079)
Ubaldi (1092, 1106)
Ubaldus (1100, 1106, 1114)
Vbaldi (1106)
Vbaldinus (1092)
Vbaldus (1115)
Ugicio (1106)
Ugo (1106, 1115)
Ugonis (1106, 1107)
Vgo (1092, 1107)
Ugulini (1074)
Uiscouello (1107)
Villani (1073)
Vvibetus (1109)
Winizo (1073)

2.      Female Given Names
Beatrici (1074, 1075)
Beatricis (1114)
Beatrix (1072-76, 1073)
Berta (1073)
Dorothe (1107)
Eritha (1073)
Imelda (1102)
Malabranca (1114)  *it is unclear whether this name is female
Mactilda (1073)
Mactilde (1073)
Mathilda (1100)
Mathildi (1074, 1075, 1079)
Mathildis (1084)
Matilda (1072-76, 1073, 1080, 1090, 1092, 1100, 1106, 1107, 1108, 1115)
Matildis (1102, 1105, 1107, 1104, 1115)
Natalia (1108)


abbatis                         (1106)                                      “abbot”
abbatissa                      (1073)                                      “abbess”
advocatus                    (1100)                                      “lawyer”
Biuinus                        (1102)
Bonisenioris                (1109)
Bonus                          (1102)
canevarius                   (1106)
capellanus                    (1100)                                      “chaplain”
causidicis                     (1073, 1080)                            “advocate, barrister?”
consobrinus                 (1115)                                      “cousin?”
de Adegerio                (1106)
de Arciano                  (1073)
de Argelata                 (1108)
de Begosso                  (1115)
de Berutto                   (1114)
de Bibianello               (1106, 1114, 1115)
de Bisienzo                 (1080)
de Bosceto                  (1107)
de Burbasso                (1115)
de Campitello              (1107)
de Candaceto              (1106)
de Canusia                  (1109)
de Capite Trognoni     (1106)
de Carpeneta               (1092, 1115)
de Carpineto               (1106)
de Casalauone             (1115)
de Castellarano           (1115)
de Castellare               (1107)
de Castello Ariano      (1115)
de Castello Uetere      (1115)
de Coatia                     (1107)
de Cordelano              (1080)
da Cornazano              (1073)
de Corsena                  (1080)
de Fuscolo                   (1108)
de Gabiana                  (1115)
de Gaio                       (1092)
de Garfagnano            (1108)
de Gezo                       (1080)
de Gonzaga                 (1115)
de Gummula               (1115)
de Gunzaca                 (1109)
de Herbera                  (1106)
de Laluza                    (1080)
de Libiola                    (1115)
de Mandria                  (1092)
de Melaria                   (1106)
de Melegnano             (1107)
de Miliarina                 (1109)
de monasterio              (1102)
de Monticulo               (1114)
de Montoni                 (1108)
de Nonantula              (1106, 1107, 1114)
de Palude                    (1114, 1115)
de Papia                      (1106)
de Parma                     (1092, 1114)
de Parpanese               (1102)
de Pelauo                    (1092)
de Placia                      (1109)
de Plaza                       (1115)
da Regie                      (1073)
de Reveri                     (1106)
de Rodilia                   (1092)
de Runcuris                 (1115)
de Sala                        (1108, 1115)
de Saltenano               (1080)
de Sasso                      (1114)
de Sauignano              (1108, 1115)
de Septingenti             (1115)
de Solario                    (1106)
de Soleria                    (1106)
de Ualle Putrida          (1109)
de Uilla                       (1115)
de Uillola                    (1115)
de Uuarstalla               (1107)
diaconus                      (1102)                                      “deacon”
Dosimero                     (1080)
Engelbardi                   (1102)
germanus                     (1073)
Guiscardum                 (1074)
Ioanni Pauli                 (1108)
iudex                           (1073, 1080, 1102, 1114)        “judge”
iudicibus                      (1073, 1080)                            “judge”
Joculi                           (1108)
latro                             (after 1084)                             “thief”
Lucensis                      (1072-76)                                “of Lucca”
Mantuanorum              (1108)                                      “of/from Mantua”
massarius                     (1106)
notarius                       (1073, 1080, 1109, 1115)        “notary”
Parmensis                    (1073, 1106, 1114)                  “of Parma”
Pistoriensis                  (1100)
Refutati                       (1106)                                      “of Refutato”
Remengarde                (1108)
riparius                        (1106)
Robaldi                       (1109)
Scario                          (1073)
Segnoreti                     (1109)
tabellius                       (1108)                                      “scrivener”
Toccacoscia                 (1073)
Tusculanensis              (1080)                                      “of Toscolano”