Monday, May 29, 2017

Sagittarius Text for Kobayashi

I've known Master Kobayashi Yutaka for far longer than either of us would care to recall.  I was pleased and honored to do the text for one of the few awards he doesn't already have -- the Sagittarius, the East's Grant-level archery award.  I didn't use a source text for inspiration on this one, I just made it up out of my own head based on over a decade of reading medieval charters and legal documents.   Can you tell?

Ioannes Imperator et Augustus.  Ro Honig Imperatrix.  Forasmuch as Our predecessors of blessed memory Viktor and Sedalia created and constituted the Order of the Sagittarius to honor and acknowledge excellence with arrow and bow, and forasmuch as We, through the office by which We possess the imperial dignity, are bound by honor and by the force of tradition, the which force men ignore at their peril, to recognize, elevate and acknowledge those of the East proven by reliable report to be excellent in such matters, and after mature deliberation, from the fullness of our imperial power,  We hereby decree ordain the following: that the name of Kobayashi Yutaka is and shall be hereafter entered upon the lists of the Order of the Sagittarius according to the present imperial and ever-valid edict.  This we have done and caused to be done upon May 27, in our solemn court in session with princes, counts, barons, magnates, nobles and citizens, in the year of the Society fifty-two.

Sunday, May 28, 2017

Aildreda's Pelican Scroll

Aildreda de Tamwurthe's persona is mid-13th century English.  That presented a slight challenge, as all of the legal documents of mid-13th century England that I've found so far are in Latin.   I still haven't mastered Latin well enough to write in it.  I can translate out of it, laboriously, with a dictionary in hand, but I can't compose in it.

I started with a Latin legal text from the 1260s, used multiple translations to confirm my own sense of what it said, and then put the modern English into pre-1300 Middle English.  The end result still reads a little more modern than I'd like, but I didn't want to hold up the scroll-making process while I fiddled to a standard of perfection that I probably couldn't meet.

The text contains deliberate internal spelling inconsistencies, mirroring the variability in spelling found in period documents.  For example, I used every spelling of "and" found in Middle English prior to 1300, just as a present for Dreda.

The ȝ character is a yogh.  It's pronounced like a modern 'y'.   ð and þ are both pronounced like 'th'.

All of the footnoted definitions of terms are based on the definitions in the Middle English Dictionary.

Ioannes, by rihte of armes Kinge of Estlonde, & Ro Honig, by þe samen rihte þe Quene, ȝif gretunge to alle whamm þe present leattre schal rahte.  For þe onour & þe auantage off oure selues ond off oure reaume, We, by þe consil of oure magnates, scilicet[1] þe worþssipuol Ordre off þe Pellican, herbi & heonne-forthþeward astoll[2], staþel[3] & bifeste[4] Aildreda de Tamwurthe as maistresse of þe ordre afoure-named.  Ant we do herbi conferme & ifaste[5] þe leattres patents biforen-ȝifenn[6] onto þe fornseid Aildreda, wið alle þe rihts, freodoms, freoscipes[7], remissiuns[8] & largesce[9] as schal belongeþ to a Peer off þis reaume.  Ant we ferþer comaunde þat þe sygnacle[10] & bagge[11] of þe Pellican be beren her-æfter uppe on þe fornseid Aildredas persone euere-more, þe hwich commandement schal be obeied on peine of such deseritisun[12] & remevement[13] off benefices as we demað soðfeste[14] & fair.  Ant þis ure leattre preouyng þe samen we sened wiþ vre seel uppe-on þis twenty- seueþe dai of Mæi, in þe fifti- secunde ȝer.

[1]  scilicet = that is, namely

[2]  astoll =  to set up, establish, institute

[3]  staþel = to establish

[4]  bifeste = to endow with, give

[5]  ifaste = to confirm, as an agreement

[6]  biforen-ȝifenn = previously given

[7]  freoscipes = rights or privileges; also freedom from servitude or obligation

[8]  remissiuns = immunities, freedoms

[9]  largesce  = freedom, liberality

[10] sygnacle = a seal, sign of genuineness, hallmark

[11]  bagge = yep, that's how you spell badge in the 13th century

[12]  deseritisun = deprivation or loss of possessions or privileges

[13] remevement = bet you've never been threatened by your own scroll before

[14]  soðfeste = primary meaning is "real, actual; genuine, authentic;"  it is used in here in its secondary meaning of proper, just and righteous

Names from 11th Century Carcassonne

Mistress Alys Mackyntoich
May 2017

The data in this article were extracted from Latin-language charters and letters published on Epistolæ (, a website maintained by Columbia University collecting writings to and from women in the Middle Ages. The letters are transcribed in the original Latin with translations into modern English by Professor Joan Ferrante of Columbia University.
Carcassonne is located in the south of France.  Although the charters from which the names were extracted were written in Latin, the local vernacular language was Occitan or Langue d’Oc.  When creating an SCA name, the elements in this article would be considered part of the French language group under Appendix C of SENA.

I.         Naming Patterns
A.  For Men
The data show a wide variety of naming patterns for men, with multiple forms of patronymic bynames and locative bynames.  These most common patterns are:
[given name] + de + [place name]
[given name] + [adjective form of a place name, using the suffix –ensis]
[given name] + filius + [father’s name in the genitive case]
[given name] + [father’s name in the genitive case]
[given name] + [father’s name in the genitive case] + de + [place name]
[given name] + [surname]
Many men, particularly those in religious offices, are known solely by their title, such as Petrus presbyter and Frotardo abbati.
There is one example of the adjectival form of the place name coming before the given name: Narbonensis Guilfredi
There is one example in the data of [given name] + cognomento + [name].
The data contains one instance of what may be a matronymic byname in the form [given name] + filia + [mother’s name in the genitive form]. 
By far the most interesting pattern found in the data is the existence of what appear to be double given names.  Multiple men are identified two names that are clearly given names by context.  The transcriptions join these compound names with a hyphen, but the hyphen may not exist in the original documents.  It is unclear whether these are true double given names or some form of unmarked patronym.  For the purposes of this article, I have treated each element of a double given name as an instance of the individual name – for example, Petrus-Raymundi is recorded as an instance of Petrus and an instance of Raymundi.
B.  For Women
This data set contains a fairly large number of female names for the time period.  Most women have no byname at all or are known by their titles, such as Rangardis comitissa. However, there are also instances of matronymic bynames in the form [given name] + filia + [mother’s name in the genitive form].

II.        Given Names
A.    How to Use the Data
Not all spellings found in the text are registerable name spellings for SCA purposes.  Latin spelling varies depending on whether the given name appears as the subject or object of the original sentence.  Only the nominative forms can be used to create given names.  Nominative forms usually end in –us.  Forms ending in –i generally are genitive forms and can be used to create patronymic surnames using the pattern [given name] + filius or filia + [genitive father’s name].
The bolded header forms are the most common nominative forms of the given names.  The forms under the heading are those actually found in the texts.  Where the nominative form is not found in any of the texts, I have extrapolated the likely nominative form based on other period examples.  The numbers in the parenthesis are the dates of documents in which the name is found.

B.  Male Given Names
      Adalberti (1066, 1067)
      Adalbertus (1070)
      Adalbert (1069)
      Aigolfi (1099)
      Alamandi (1068)
      Alexandri (1067)
      Amaldo (1069)
      Ameli (1099)
      Amelii (1099)
      Arnal (c. 1090)\
      Arnalli (1058, 1067)
      Arnallum (1067)
      Arnallus (1067)
Ato / Atto
      Ato (1069, 1099)
      Atto (1084, c. 1090)
      Azedmari (1067)
      Baro (c. 1075, 1084)
      Begoni (c. 1090)
      Beliard (1059)
      Berengarii (1058, 1066, 1067, 1068, 1070, 1071)
      Berengarius (1064)
      Bernar (c.1090)
Bernard (1067)
Bernardi (1066, 1067, 1067/68, 1070, c. 1075)
Bernardo (1066, 1069, 1071, c. 1090)
Bernardum (1099)
Bernardus (1068, 1069, 1070, 1084, 1089, 1097, 1099)
Bertranus / Bertrandus
      Bertrandi (1067)
      Bertrani (c. 1075)
      Bertranno (1066)
      Bonifilii (1070)
      Bremundo (1069)
      Durandi (1068)
      Durando (1068)
      Duranno (1068)
      Elisiarii (1066)
      Elisiarni (1066)
      Engelbert (1069)
      Enrici (1067)
      Henrici (1066)
      Ermemiri (1058)
      Escafredi (1089)
      Fredeloni (1066)
      Frotardo (1062, 1066)
Froterius / Frotarius
      Frotarii (1062)
      Froterii (1068, c.1075)
      Froterio (1069)
      Froterius (1069)
      Fulcho (1099)
      Gaucelini (1067)
      Gauzberti (1066, 1068)
      Gauzfredo (1067)
      Geraldi (1066, 1068)
      Geraldo (1067)
      Giraldo (c. 1075)
      Giraldus (1069)
      Guiraldi (1068)
      Girbert (1064)
      Girberti (1067)
      Girberto (1064)
      Girbertus (1064)
Guifredus / Gifredus / Guilfredus /
      Gifredi (1067)
      Guifredi (1068)
      Guifredus (1070)
      Guilfredi (1067)
      Guigo (1084)
      Guigonis (1084)
      Guitardi (1066)
      Ermengaudi (1067)
      Hermengaudi (1084)
      Hugone (1066)
      Hugoni (1066)
      Hugonis (1066)
      Ugo (1089)
      Ugonis (1067)
      Imberti (1068)
      Ioannes (1067)
      Ioannis (1066, 1067)
      Lodgario (1070)
      Lupi (1068)
      Martinum (1099)
      Matfredi (1068)
      Miro (1064, 1069)
      Mironem (1069)
      Mironis (1058, 1064, 1067)
      Oliverii (1067)
      Osmundus (1099)
      Otone (1070, 1071)
Petri (1067, 1067/68, 1069, 1070, 1071, 1099)
Petro (1066, 1069, 1070, c. 1090)
Petronis (c. 1075)
Petronum (1063)
Petrum (1084)
Petrus (1062, 1063, 1067/68, 1069, 1070, 1071, 1084)
Philippi (1063, 1064, 1067/68, 1070 1071)
Philippo (1062, 1066, 1067, 1069, 1084, 1089, c. 1090, 1097, 1099)
      Poncii (1067, c. 1090)
      Poncius (1067, 1069, 1084)
      Pontii (1099)
      Pontio (1066)
      Pons (1099)
      Raimbaldo (1066)
Raimundi (1066, 1067, 1070)
Raimundo (1070)
Raimundus (1064, 1067)
Raymundi (1067/68, 1071, 1084, 1089)
Raymundo (1071, c. 1090)
Raymundus (1059, 1062, 1063, 1066, 1067/68, 1069, 1084)
Remendi (1070)
Remundi (1067, 1070)
Ricalfus / Riculfus
      Ricalfi (1067)
      Riculfi (1069)
      Ricardi (1058)
      Ricardum (1058)
Rodgarius / Rotgarius
Rodgarii (1070, 1071)
Rodgario (1067/68, 1071)
Rodgarius (1067/68)
Rotgerii (1062)
Rogarius (1068)
Rogerio (1063)
Rogerium (1063)
Rogerius (1063)
      Rostagni (1066, 1084)
      Rostagno (1066)
      Rostagnus (1084)
      Scimon (1067)
      Segario (1066)
      Sigarii (1069)
      Sigerii (1068)
      Spirani (c. 1075)
      Stephani (1067, 1068, c. 1075, 1084)
      Stephanus (1067, 1069, c. 1090)
      Tridmundo (1066)
      Tritmundus (1084)
      Udalardi (1069)
      Udalgarii (1067)
      Umberto (1066)
Guillelmi (1062, 1068, 1099)
Guillermi (1067)
Guillermus (1067, 1070)
Wilelmus (1062)
Willelmi (c. 1075, 1084, c. 1090)
Willelmus (1062, 1084)
Willhermi (1089)

C.  Female Given Names
      Adala (1066)
Adalais (1062)
Adalaidis (1070)
Adalez (1067)
      Adalmodi (1067/68)
      Adalmodis (1067)
      Alamudis (1068)
      Almode (1067)
      Almodi (1071, 1071)
      Almodis (1058, 1064, 1066, 1067)
      Ameliae (1071)
      Arnsidam (1067)
      Caecilia (1097)
      Ermengardem (1068)
      Ermengardis (1062, 1067, 1067/68, 1070, 1084, 1089, 1090, 1097)
      Ermingarda (c. 1075)
      Ermingardis (1067/68)
      Hermengard (1069)
      Hermengardis (1069, 1084, 1099)
      Hermingarda (c. 1075)
      Garsindis (1062)
      Guilherma (1069)
      Guillelma (1070)
      Wilherma (1069)
      Mantilis (1067)
Raingardis (1062)
Rangard  (1059)
Rangarda (1063)
Rangardam (1059)
Rangardi (1071)
Rangardis (1067, 1070, 1071, 1090)
Rengarde (1063)
Rengardis (1059, 1063, 1067)
Trudgarda (possibly Trudgardis)
      Trudgarda (1063)

III.      Bynames
            This section includes bynames found in the data that were not patronymics.  If the form in the text was not the nominative form, I have indicated the nominative form as the header.  Where possible, the meanings of the bynames have been noted in italics.
abbatus (1062)                                    abbot
Altemir (1058, 1067)
Aquiniensis (1066)                             of Aix
Auxiensis (1066)                                of Auch
Avinionensis (1066)                           of Avignon
Batallia (1063)
Barcheonensis (1064, 1066, 1068)     of Barcelona
Biterrensis (1062, 1070)                    of Béziers
capiscolius (1066)                              choir leader
Carcassonensis (1067, 1070, 1071)   of Carcassonne
Caunensis (1062)                                of Caunes
Cluniensis (1066)                               of Cluny
cognomento Trencavels (1070)         known as Trencavels
Dalmati (1066, 1068)                         from Dalmatia (Croatia)?
de Alto-pullo (1084)                          of Altpol
de Alverno (c. 1075)
de Barbarano (1066)
de Bernizo (c.1075)
de Cantul (1069)
de Capraria (1066)                             of Cabrières
de Carcassona (1067/68, 1099)          of Carcassonne
de Caunas (1070)                                of Caunes
de Cervaria (1069)
de Cerviano (1068)                             of Servian
de Clarenciaco (c.1075)                     of Clarensac
de Claromonte (1067)
de Coquinas (1067)
de Fox (1067/68)                                of Foix
de Ispania (1064)                                of Spain
de Medenis (1066)                             of Médis
de Moisiaco (1067)                            of Moissac
de Montepessulano (1068)                 of Montpellier
de Ornadons (1070)
de Petrataliada (1068)
de Ponça[1] (1067)                                of Pons
de Poskeriis (1066)                            of Posquières
[de] Proliano (1063)
de Redez (1067, 1067/68)
de Sancta Maria (1067/68)                 of Saint Mary
de Saragoza (1064)                             of Zaragoza
de Tarraga (1069)
      de Tarrega (1058, 1069)
de Tolosa (1067/68)                           of Toulouse
de Villaflorani (1099)
de Villemagna (1067)
Gerundensis (1066)                            of Girona
Isarni (1064, 1067)
Magalonensis (1066)                          of Maguelone
Massiliensis (1066)                            of Marseille
Menerbensis (1070)                           of Minerve
monachus (1066, 1067)                      monk
Monaello (c. 1090)
Narbonensis  (1067/58, 1070)            of Narbonne
Nemausensis (1062)                           of Nimes
Picart (c. 1090)                                   Picard (from Picardy)
Picola (1067)
Pictavinus (1084)                               of Poitiers
Redensis (1070)                                  of Razès
Rutenensis (1066)                              of Rouergue

[1]  The transcription notes that the cedilla appears in the source text.